Guides to London (zie afbeeldingen)

Stow, John (1525 - 1605)

Survay of London: Containing the Originall, Antiquity, Increase, Moderne Estate, and Description of that Citie, Written in the Year 1598

Stow maakt gebruik van de Latijnse tekst van William Fitzstephen (een schrijver in dienst van Thomas à Becket († 1190) die zijn

biografie van Becket liet voorafgaan door een beschrijving van Londen.

The Survey was republished in 1603 (much enlarged) , during Stow's lifetime

1618, 3rd edition (updated by Anthony Munday)

1633 folio edition , enlarged by Anthony Munday, & Henry Dyson, with map of London and Westminster by T. Porter),

1720 (two folio volumes, edited by John Strype, with 2-sheet city map of London, Westminster & Southwark + map of London in Elizabethan times + 41 plates)

           Note: Although Strype had arranged most of the work by 1707, and the engravings had been prepared, it was set aside after the publication of

           Edward Hatton's New View of London in 1708, which seemed to cover much the same ground and was considerably smaller and cheaper.

           Finally, once the defects of Hatton's book were acknowledged another agreement in November 1716 led to the Survey's publication at the end of 1720

1754 / 1755,new edition of John Strype's edition, in 2 folio volumes, with additiobnal text, and 132 plates

1842, annotated by William J. Thoms, and republished in 1876

1890 (based on 2nd edition, with some material from 1st edition that was left out in the 2nd), 1912, 1929, etc (i.a. by Everyman's Library).

1633 edition

1720 edition

Edward Ward (1660 or 1667 - 1731, link)

The London Spy, 1703, previously published in 18 monthly parts from 1698

        Edward Ward also wrote the following travel accounts:

        A Trip to Jamaica (1698), A Trip to New England (1699), A Trip to Islington (1699), A Trip to Sadler's Wells (1699), A Trip to Bath (1700), A Trip to Stourbridge (1700)


Edward Hatton

A New View of London (1708), met kaart van Londen, AD 1707

Strype, John
(1643-1737, link)
A Survwey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1720.

Het is een nieuwe, geactualiseerde editie van het werk van John Stow.



Macky, John (... - 1726)

              A Journey through England, In Familiar Letters from a Gentleman Here to His Friend Abroad; deel 2 verscheen in in 1722.

              Letter 1 van deel 2 gaat over Londen ten tijde van George I en beschrijft bijzonderheden over de twee debtor's prisons van Londen

              (de Fleet en de King's Bench beschouwt hij als uniek in de wereld), en de recentelijke stadsuitbreidingen aan de westkant van Londen:

              "Besides several new streets near Golden Square, there is a whole town as big as Ostend, and after that form too,

              called Hanover Square (...) and it is now the most frequented part of the town by quality. The Duke of Roxborough and his

              brother, General Stewart, Lord Cowper, Lord Carpenter, and many other of the nobility have built themselves palaces here.

              And beyond it, cross the Great Road, there is the foundation of another square laid by my Lord Harley,

              which will reach to Mary-le-Bon. (...)

              The neighbourhood of London is also prodigiously enlarged since the South-Sea Scheme. Chelsea by its new buildings

              fronting the River, is more like a city than a village: And indeed most villages within few miles of the city, are adorned with South-Sea Seats.

              Belsize, a seat of My Lord Chesterfield's, at the bottom of Hamstead Hill, hath been tunred into an Academy of Music, Dancing, and Play,

              for the diversion of the ladies; and where they are, the gentlemen will not fail to be also. The Ball Room and Gaming Room are

              finely and properly adorned; and one would be surprised to see so much very good company as come thither during the season.

              But above all, there are two fine palaces, the Duke of Chandois, ten miles off, called Cannons; the other by the Lord Castlemain

              at Wansted, five miles off, which when finished will be inferior to few royal palaces in Europe." (pp. 3-5)


John Rocque (approx. 1704 - 1762)

                  An Exact Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1746 (reissued in 1747, 1748, 1751, 1769)

                  De Hedendaagsche Historie, of Tegenwoordige Staat van Groot-Brittannië, uitgegeven in 2 delen, in 1754, door Isaac Tirion,

                  bevat een kaart van Londen en omgeving ("ruiim een uur gaans rondsom dezelve stad") gebaseerd op "de kaart van John Roque",

                  met een index van de voornaamste straten, pleinen, markten, publieke gebouwen, etc.

                  De schaalverdeling is in Engelsche mijlen en Rijnlandse roeden (1500 Rijnlandse roeden = 1 uur gaans)


Pierre-Jean Grosley (M. Grosley = Mr Grosley, 1718-1788, link)

A Tour of London or New Observations on England, 1772, vertaald door Thomas Nugent

Pennant, Thomas
Some Account of London, 1790 (+ 2e editie, 14 plates), 1791, 1793 (3e editie, 1805 (4e editie, 15 plates incl. folding map), 1813 (5e editie, 13 plates + fold-out)

John Feltham

A Picture of London for .... , 1802 (1803, 1805, 1806, 13e editie in 1812), van John Feltham (?) ; echter in de eerste gidsen wordt geen auteur genoemd,

         de gids lijkt volledig het werk van Phillips; ook in de Advertisement van de editie voor 1805 wordt alleen het adres No. 6 Bridge Street vermeld.

         Er verschenen tenminste 27 uitgaves; de uitgaves van Phillips bevatten veel enthousiaste en originele informatie evenals sociale en politieke kritiek.

         Vanaf 1813 of 1814 werd de gids door Longman & Co. gepubliceerd (de 16e editie verscheen in 1815, de 17e in 1816, de 18e in 1817, de 19e in 1818, de 23e in 1824)

         Latere uitgaves (1826, 1829, 1832) heetten The Original Picture of London, gepubliceerd door Longman & Co, onder redactie van John Britton

         Uit brieven in de Longman Archives blijkt dat Phillips 1/3 van de aandelen in deze gids had behouden, en 1/3 aan resp. Longman & Co en aan Cadell had verkocht.

         In onder andere een uit 1828 daterend overzicht werd Phillips nog als begunstigde vermeld (het boekje bracht in dat jaar nog slechts ruim 20 pond op).


Hughson, David

London; Being an Accurate History and Description of the British and its Neighbourhood, to Thirty Miles Extent, 1805-1809, 6 volumes

Dit werk lijkt geïnspireerd door The Survey of London van John Stow (1598), en John Strype (1720).
Een rijk geïllustreerde 4-delige editie van 1807 bevat ook uitvouwbare kaarten waarin de huidige toestand wordt vergeleken met die uit de tijd van Elizabeth 1, en uit 1642-3.


Mogg, Edward

The Stranger's Guide to London and Westminster, exhibiting the various alterations and improvements complete to the present time, 1809, & later editions

Mogg's New Picture of London, or Stranger's Guide to the British Metropolis, 1838 (10th edition 1847, last edition 1849)

Mogg's London and its Environs for 1851 (also for later years, e.g. 1853, 1855), price: half a crown


Edward Mogg also published:

An Entire New Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster, with the Borrough of Southwark, 1807 (5th edition)

New Map of the Country Twenty-Four Miles Round London, 1809

London in Miniature with Surrounding Villages, 1809

Mogg's Superior Map of London, 1851

Edward Mogg was also the editor of Daniel Paterson's A New and Accurate Description of All the Direct and Principal Roads in England and Wales

         from the 16th edition onwards (1822)

Brayley, Edward Wedlake (1773 - 1854, link)

      London and its Environs, or , the General Ambulator and Pocket Companion (12th edition, 1820, Scatcherd & Letterman).

      The Beauties of England and Wales (from 1801, jointly with John Britton; in the first 10 out of 25 volumes published during 20 years)

Britton, John (1771 - 1858, link)

        The Original Picture of London, in bijv. 1826, 1829, 1832 (27e editie); een latere uitgave van A Picture of London door John Feltham (Richard Phillips)

         gepubliceerd door Longman

        The Beauties of England and Wales (from 1801, jointly with Edward Wedlake Brayley; in the first 10 out of 25 volumes published during 20 years)


G.F. Cruchley

Cruchley's Picture of London, Or Visitor's Assistant

                (1833 1st, 1836 2nd, 1838, 1840 6th, 1842 7th, 1843 8th, 1844 9th, 1846 11th, 1851 16th, 1853 17th)

Cruchley's New Guide to London

                 1862 (with reference to Great International Exhibition of 1862), ......

Cruchley's Reduced Ordance Map of London, [zie ook bij atlassen]

               showing the New Street tot the Mansion House, Holborn Valley Improvements, Metropolitan Meat market,

                Underground Railway  & Stations, and the Thames Embankment, &c,

                eighteen pence coloured, Cruchley, Map Publisher, 81 Fleet Street

                including Index to Cruchley's Railway and Commercial Map of London, with reference to streets, railways, &c

                + "London Guide" (32 pages):

                "a brief description of the various Entertainments, Public buildings, &c."

                "to accompany Cruchley's New Map of London"

                "For a more interesting and detailed account, the reader is referred to Cruchley's London Guide, price 1s. 6d."

                 Publication date: circa 1867-68. De laatste nieuwe bouwwerken die met jaartal worden vermeld dateren van 1866

                                                                    (the Holborn Valley Aquaduct was to be opened on 6 Nov. 1869,

                                                                     the Metropolitan Meat Market was completed in 1868,

                                                                     the site of the New Law Courts had been appointed in 1868 (no construction yet)

                                                                     no Mansion House Tube Station yet (opened in 1871), No Tower Bridge

                                                                     Note: New Bethlem Hospital, Penitentiary House, etc.

Cruchley's Map of London


Tallis, John (1817 - 1876)

London Street Views, 1838

Tallis's Illustrated London: In Commemoration of the Great Exhibition of All Nations in 1851, ed. William Gaspey, 1851, 2 volumes

          Vol. I has 320 pages, with a 4-page list of contents, plus 1 fold-out engraving, 1 title page vignet, 39 full-page engravings, 84 half-page engravings

          Vol. II has 304 pages, with a 4-page list of contents, plus 2 fold-out engravings, 1 title page vignet, 41 full-page engravings, 56 half-page engravings

Engravings include schools, bridges, churches, hospitals, parks, cemeteries, prisons, inns of court, railway stations, streets, river views,

guildhalls, club houses, theatres, zoos, munuments, a recent (1851) model lodging house proposed by Prince Albert, inside views of the Great Exhibition Hall.


Volume 1 contains i.a.: fold-out view of London from the Thames, view of St. Paul's from the River, interior of the House of Lords (p. 147), Smtifield Market (p. 224),

Royal Humane Society Serpentine (p. 201), Thames Tunnel (p. 295), The Dreadnought at Deptford (p. 296), Gardens at Highbury Barn Tavern (p. 218),

London University  (p. 318), 2 x the New Hall, London & North Western Railway Station, Euston Square (p.318),  Bridge over the Serpentine (p., Hungerford Bridge (p. 86),

Old bailey (p. 35), Waterloo Bridge (p. 62), Somerset House (p. 57)< Houses of parliament (p. 117), St. Paul's + royal occasion (p.7)


Volume 2 contains i.a.: fold-out views of The Exhibition Hall, Buckingham palace (opposite title page), The Thames (p. 85), Greenwich Hospital (p. 91),

Kew Gardens (p. 116), Kew Bridge (p. 120), Hammersmith Suspension Bridge 9p. 120), Bethlem Hospital (p. 39), Eton College, Windsor Castle (p. 109),

Richmond Bridge (p.111), Wandsworth, Putney (p. 123), The Tower (p. 145), Billingsgate (with the sailor's floating church Bethel p. 145), Rosherville Gardens,

Gravesend (p. 158), Terrace Pier, Gravesend (p. 159), London Bridge (5 arches, p. 142), St. Katherine's Docks (p. 163), London Docks (p. 164),

The New London Fever Hospital (p. 174), The New London Small Pox Hospital , Highgate (p. 174), Billingsgate Market (p. 264), New City Prison, Hooloway (p. 178),

South Eastern Railway Station (near London Bridge, p. 184), Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park (p. 236), Surrey Zoological Gardens (p. 240),

The New Consumption Hospital ("now building near Victoria Park", p. 254), Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum (p. 264), Southwestern Railway Station, Nine Elms (p. 185),

Brighton Railway Station, London Bridge< macclesfield Bridge, Regent's park (p. 250), Polytechnic institution (AD 1838, p. 258),

Prince Albert's Model Lodging House (1851, p. 265)

Adam & Charles Black wikipedia link

                  Black's Picturesque Tourist and Road-Book of England and Wales, 1843 (1e druk, 411 pp, 7 plates + 11 maps, incl. 6 fold-ups),

                                                        1844, 1845 (7 plates + 12 maps), 1846, 1848 (7 plates, 14 maps, incl. 10 fold-ups)

                  Black's Picturesque Tourist Road and Railway Guide-Book Through England and Wales, 1853 (?), 1854 (2e), 1855 (3e),1857, 1861

                                                       voor het eerst verschenen kort na Edward Churton's The Railroad Book of England, 1851

                  Black's Guide to England and Wales, 1863 (1e druk), 1872 (10e), 1874 (11e), 1881 (12e)

                  Black's Picturesque Tourist of Ireland, 1854 (1e druk), 1865 (6e), 1882 (17e), 1888 (20e), 1912 (25e)

                  Black's Guide to Ireland, 1900 (4e), 1902 (5e)

                  Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland, 1839 (1e druk), 1852 (10e)

                  Black's Guide to London and its Environs, 1863 (1e), 1870 (..), 1910 (16e), 1920 (19e)

Shilling Guides, second half of 19th century (vergelijk "Dubbeltjes-Gids" in Nederland)

Short-distance destinations such as Broadstairs, Margate, Ramsgate (from London), or Blackpool (from Liverpool) were among the first to become popular

with a wider public, including lower-middle class inhabitants of towns and cities who wanted to leave the hot, crowded and unhealthy cities on a Sunday

or a (summer) holiday and go on a short excursion (day-trip). Longer-distance destinations used to be the exclusive domain of aristocrats.

For example Brighton in the late 18th and early 19th century. These people had the time and money to have their own carriages needed for travelling there,

or to stay at a hotel or permanent residence there. In the early part of the 19th century, they were joined by upper-middle class people, who had acquired

this status in the course of the Industrial Revolution and also had the money, and time, to escape from the increasingly crowded and unhealthy cities

for a few days. In the course of the 19th century century, with the increase of cheaper, faster, and more comfortable railway travel, these more remote

destinations were coming within the reach of a wider group of lower-middle-class people, who had some money and perhaps only their free Sunday

or public holiday to go on a short excursion to a growing number popular destinations in Britain, Ireland, and the Continent (that previously had been

the exclsusive resorts for the moneyed few). Among this new group of excursionists, there was a demand for cheaper and travel guides that only dealt

with a single destination and/or might contain only 100 to 150 pages. The so-called "shiling-guides" would become popular, and remain for sale until the 1960s!

Black's Guide (e.g. "Diamond Edition")

The first "shilling guides" published by A & C Black were published alongside the traditional more expensive "Black-guides". For instance, in the 1870s,

there would be a "shilling-guide" for England, alongside a more elaborate edition costing 10 shilling and 6 pence (10s. 6d.). similarly for Wales (5 shillings)

and Scotland (the 21st edition of the traditional edition cost 8s. 6d. in 1877). There would also be a cheaper edtion of the individual Channel Islands, and

of the Lake District. And shiling guides to the larger cities such as Aberdeen (and Braemar), Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester (and Salford),

Liverpool, and London that would describe excursions in their immediate "environs". The single destinations covered by the first "shilling guides" included

Alton Towers and Dovedale, Brighton, Buxton, Cheltenham, Harrowgate, Leamington, Moffat Spa, Scarborough and Whitby, Skye, Sutherlandshire,

and Trosachs and Loch Lomond.

Weale, John (publisher, 1791-1862)

London and its Vicinity Exhibited (1851, 1st ed., 5000 copies): London Exhibited in 1851; Elucidating its natural and physical characteristics, its antiquity

and architecture; its arts, manufactures, trade, and organization; its social, literary, and scientific institutions; and its numerous galleries of Art (910 pp)

London Exhibited in 1852

A New Survey of London (1853, 2nd ed., 5000 copies)

The Pictorial Handbook of London, Comprising its Antiquities, Architecture, Arts, Manufacture, Trade, Social, Literary, and Scientific Institutions,

Exhibitions, and Galleries of Art, 2 delen, 910 pagina's, 1854 and later editions, published by Bohn, unchanged reprint of the previous editions by Weale

Moore, Fred W                 

Hardwicke's Shilling Handy Book of London, 1859 (en latere edities, o.a. in 1860, 1862, gewijd aan de International Exhibition, pp. 16-114), 172 pp, fold-out map of London in front

1862 edition with 16 plates:

(1) Buckingham Palace (2) House of Lords (3) Horse Guards (4) Somerset House (5) General Post Office

(6) Bank of England, Royal Exchange, Mansion House

(7) Billingsgate, Customs House, Tower

(8) Westminster Bridge, Houses of Parliament

(9) Army and Navy Club House, (10) St Paul's &  Ludgate Hall, (11) Westminster Abbey & St. Margaret's

(12) Hyde Park Corner (13) Trafalgar Square

(14) British Museum (15) International Exhibition Building

(16) Covent Garden Theatre

Herbert Fry

                                London in 1880 (1890, etc. up to 1918), illustrated by twenty bird's eye views of the principal streets

T. Nelson and Sons

                                 Nelson's Pictorial Guide Book for Tourists (approx 1864, 1871?)

                                 Nelson also published pictorial guide books for tourists to London (e.g. the West End; Crystal Palace Exterior and Grounds), Isle of Wight,  

                                  Edinburgh and its Neighbourhood, Newport, West Cowes, The Falls of the Clyde, Leamington, Matlock and its Neighbourhood, etc.

William Collins , Sons, and Company

                                 Collins' Illustrated Guide to London and Neighbourhood (e.g.1871, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1883)

                                 including a coloured fold-out clue-map by Bartholomew + engravings

Baddeley Ward ("Thorough Guides"), country and regional guides published from the 1880s until early 20th c.

                                written by M.J.B. Baddeley (Mountford John Byrde Baddeley ) & others, published by Dulau & Co., London

                                bijvoorbeeld: Eastern Counties, Scotland, Devon-Cornwall, Yorkshire, South Hants & Dorset, English lakes, Northe Wales, Peak District

Stanford's Tourist's Guide, county guides published from the late 1870s, in competition with John Murrays' county guides published from 1850

                                Stanford's New London Guide (..., 1860, ....)

Pascoe, Charles Eyre, London of Today, published 1881 - 1904 & ff?,
1st Am. ed. / 2nd Engl. ed. in 1885, 2e Am. ed./ 3e Eng. editie in 1886, 9e ed. in 1893, 12e in 1896, 18e ed. in 1903

Beschrijving van het Londen op het hoogtepunt van het Victoriaanse tijdperk, ooggtuigeverslag van een schrijver die omstreeks het midden van de 19e eeuw in London

kwam wonen, toen de "Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes" (1844) in het leven werd geroepen om de extreme armoede en sociale ellende
die er op grote schaal heerste aan te pakken,

De periode van verbeterde huisvesting, hervormingen in het gevangeniswezen, algemeen onderwijs (elementary education volgens het plan van Forster)
London of Today werd uitgegeven in dezelfde periode toen ook Charles Booth zijn Life and Labour of the People of London (1889), met de bekende "poverty maps", uitgaf.
Het werk gaf een beschrijving van Londen in een tijd dat meer en meer toeristen, ook uit Amerika, de metropool (met al meer dan 6 miljoen inwoners) wilden bezoeken.

"[T]he ordinary tourist and holiday-visitor comes to London to 'see the sights',  and to hear of 'what's going on'; 'to be entertained and amused, in fact; andd his curiosity must indeed be insatiable if he do not find enough there to gratify it to the fullest. The purpose of this handy-book of 'London of To-Day' is to help him on his way, to tell him of what is doing during the gayest part of the year - the Season - as well as of what is to be seen, and of what's going on, at all seasons of the year." (1886, 3rd edition, page18)
In de 18e editie van 1903 beschreef Pascoe zijn werk en leven in Londen ("Pages Personal", pp. 3-9).
Hij begon zijn carrièrre als journalist voor The Standard, met een beschrijving van "the barge-people on the canals from London to Liveropool".

Daarna beschreef hij "artisans' dwellings in London".

Vervolgens de "public schools and schools for girls and colleges for women". )"Everyday Life in our Public Schools", en "Schools for Girls and Colleges for Women")

Toen "the several professional carreers and life's work of our actors and actresses" "Our Actors and Actresses",  1879),
En "the several palaces and homes of Her Majesty, from Kensington to Balmoral".

"Lastly, the subject of London of To-Day".

Pascoe is ook de autuer van "A London Directory for American Travellers", 1874        

Darlington, Ralph, Darlington's Handbooks

                                Darlington's London, uitgegeven vanaf 1896, 2e in 1898-9,............6e editie in 1909

Booth, Charles
Life and Labour of the People of London, 1889 (1e), 1897 (2e), 1902 (3e editie, 17 volumes)

Kron, R.
                 The Little Londoner, a concise account of the life and ways of the English, with special reference to London, supplying the means of acquiring
                  and adequate command of the spoken language in all departments of daily life.
                 1e editie dateert van 1897, de 24e editie van 1961
                  Kron schreef ook Le Petit Parisien, en The Little Yankee
                  Het werk geeft een levendige beschrijving op basis van persoonlijke  ervaring, met praktische tips voor toeristen die verder gaan dan bijv. het werk van Charles Pascoe

Ward Lock's ("Ready Guides", "Red Guides")

In the late 1870-s Ward, Lock and Co. published a number of county travel guides under the nam of  "Ready Guide". They were booklets of about 32 pages,

including a page of advertisements, and a county map. Titles included the Ready Guide to Surrey, Ready Guide to Sussex, Ready Guide to Kent, and the

Ready Guide to Derbyshire.

They were sold for sixpence.

The Ready Guides did not have the publication year on their title page, but there are some indirect clues as to their date of publication.

For instance, the Ready Guide to Surrey (see its cover picture below) included an advert for Parr's Life Pills which quoted a letter that they had purportedly

received dated December 1877, but, more importantly, there is an advert by Ward Lock for advertising in the 1878 Ready Guide Books.

Ebenezer Ward & George Lock (wikipedia link) published their Red Guides from 1880 until 1980 (!); eventually there would be 72 titles (link).

The early editions als mention the names of Tyler and/or Bowden as co-publishers ("Ward, Lock & Tyler", "Ward, Lock, Bowden & Co.", etc.)

In 1861 Ward and Lock published the London Pocket Guide, which would be the forerunner to a series starting in 1880 (with green paper boards)

covering 30 destinations, such as: Abbotsford, Ayr, Bridlington, Brighton, Buxton,Cahnnel Islands, Connemara, County Wicklow, Derby, Dublin,

Edinburgh, Environs of London, Glasgow, Inverness, Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, Kenilworth, Killarney, Leamington, Leeds, Limerick, Liverpool,

Loch Lomond, London,  Matlock, Nottingham, Oban, Redcar, Scarborough, Stratford-upon-Avon, Whitby.

By approx. 1900, the number of destinations had increased to 72, including a number of tourist destinations on the European Continent:

Paris, Switzerland, Rome, Riviera, Holland, and Belgium.

Van de London Guide verschenen 67 edities. In sommige jaren werden meer dan één editie gepubliceerd. Niet elke editie lijkt ook werkelijk te zijn gepubliceerd.

1e ed.


35e / 36e
36e / 37e
3e ed.
new / 28e
new / 33e
4e ed.
20e / 21e
33e rev.

Tot 1892 was de omslag groen (harde kaft). In het midden van de jaren-50 kregen de Guides een harde kaft, met geel-rode omslag.

De gidsen werden in het begin ook wel Shilling Guides genoemd. De gids uit 1896 WARD, LOCK & BOWDEN bevatte nog gravures maar daarnaast een twintigtal foto's (!),

en de 1898-gids was met volledig foto's geïllustreerd.

Op de eerste stadsplattegronden stonden ook metrolijnen. Vanaf 1920 werd een plattegrond van de Londense metro toegevoegd, volgens het MacDonald

Gill-ontwerp (zie Black's Guide to London van 1920). In 1933 werd die vervangen door het schematische ontwerp van Harry Beck (nu nog in gebruik).

Speciale London Guides:

1900: tunnels under the Thames

1902: "Coronation edition", met  80 zwart-wit foto's, central railway underground map, nieuwe elektrische metrolijnen

1903:  central tube map, new electric railway, Queen Victoria memorial proposed + foto, Great Wheel at Earl's Court + foto


1908: Franco-British Exhibition, plan of Exhibition, Exhibition Supplement, reference to Entente Cordial uit 1903, 1908 Olympic Games, Olympic Stadium,

marathon route, reference to Olympic Winter Games in October

1911: Coronation pictures, George V, year of last horse-drawn omnibuses, colour map tube railway, public telephones

1919: met Underground Map of the Electric Railways of London, 18-6-1919, uitgave Electric Railway House, Broadway, Westminster, met initialen S.W.,

op achterzijde ook de sportvelden van de 10 belangrijkste voetbalclubs, de 2 cricketvelden, en de vliegvelden waar aan recreatief vleigen kan worden gedaan

(Cricklewood, Hendon, Hounslow)

1935: Silver Jubilee Edition

1951: 58e editie, met Festival of Britain Supplement

1953: Coronation edition

De Liverpool Red Guide van 1899-1900 telt meer dan 40 foto's.

A Picture of London for 1806, published by Richard Phillips
A Picture of London for 1816, published by Richard Phillips
Picture of London, 1825, published by Samuel Leigh
Picture of London, 1840, published by Samuel Leigh
Modern London, 1851, published by John Murray


geraadpleegde bronnen / kaarten

[William Fitzstephen, 1174]

[John Stow, A Survay/Survey of London, 1598 and later editions in 1603, etc, edited in 1618 and 1633 (Anthony Munday),

                in 1694 (Richard Blome), expanded in 1720 (John Strype)]

The London Spy, Compleat in eighteen-parts, by Edward Ward, 1703

A New View of London, Edward Hatton, 1708, met een kaart van Londen uit 1707 & een kaart uit de tijd van Koningin Elizabeth uit circa 1600

Hedendaagsche Historie ... van Groot-Bittannië, met kaart van Londen door Herman Moll, 1754

A Tour to London, or New Observations on England and its Inhabitants, by Grosley (translated by Thomas Nugent), 1772

The Ambulator, or the Stranger's Companion  in a Tour Round London, 1774

Picture of London for 1805, new edition published by Richard Phillips (geen kaarten)

Picture of London for 1816, 17th edition published by Richard Phillips (geen kaarten)

New Picture of London + map engraved by Sidney hall (published by Samuel Leigh, editions: 1824-5, 1830)

Murray's Modern London, 1851

Cruchley's Reduced Ordnance Map of London, approx. 1867

Black's Guide to London and Environs, 1877

Ward & Lock's Guide to London, 17e editie, 1898

London: A Concise History, by Geoffrey Trease

125: great fire of London, population in Roman times approx. 45,000

604: first building of St. Paul's cathedral

981: great fire

1012: bevolkingsaantal van Londen: ca. 12.000

1065: (28 dec.) voltooiing van Westminster Abbey op de plaats waar 3 eeuwen lang een Benedictijns klooster had gestaan op Thorney Island, in de Theems

1090: The Church of St. Giles, at Cripplegate, in the City; it was rebuilt in 1392

1100: (circa) Tower of London voltooid (het deel dat "White Tower" heet); in opdracht van William the Conqueror, ook Baynard's Castle en Montfichet's Castle

1107: Palace of the Bishops of Winchester at Borough Street, near London Bridge, at the site of today's Borough Market

1118: Temple of the Templar Knights at Holborn

1174: William Fitzstephen's account of London, "Descriptio Nobilissimi Civitatis Londoniae", was added as a preface to his biography of Thomas Becket:


1180: St. Helen's Church (at today's Great St. Helen's Street); it used to be a nunnery before 1180

1184-1185: The Temple (originally the principal church of the Knights Templar, at Holborn, removed to site between Fleet Street & The Embankment

1188: eerste Newgate Prison built on the orders of Henry II, vergroot in 1236, en 1422; afgebrand in 1666, herbouwd in 1672, gerenoveerd vanaf 1770,

            maar vernield tijdens de Gordon riot van 1780, en weer herbouwd in 1782

1189: Fleet Prison built in the first year of Richard I's reign (according to the New Picture of London, 1824)

1209: de oude London Bridge, constructie van deze eerste stenen brug, nmet 19 bogen, begon in 1174 door Peter Colechurch; vpas in 1831vervangen

1212: brand op de London Bridge

1215: Court of Common Pleas, in Courts of Law

1224: Franciscan monastry (Grey Friars) moved from Cornhill to new location at (today's) Newgate Street

1241: Karmelietenklooster gevestigd tussen Fleet Street en de Theems (White Friars)

1245/6: Palace of Savoy, the Strand, kado van Henry III aan oom van zijn Provençaalse vrouw; later bewoond door John of Gaunt, afgebrand in 1381, Peasants' Revolt

1246: moordpartij op Joden

1265: the Chancery (op de plaats waar tegenwoordig de Public Records Office staat, aan Chancery Lane

1272-1307: de regeerperiode van Koning Edward I

           er ontstonden een aantal voorsteden buiten de oude stadswallen als gevolg van de ontbossing van delen van Middlesex (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1283: strenge winter, London Bridge zwaar beschadigd door ijs

1290: Joden verbannen uit Londen door Edward I (van kracht tot Cromwell), hun voormalige woongebied (Old Jewry) werd toegewezen aan de Friars of the Sac (klooster)

1291: Charing Cross: a cross was placed half-way between London and westminster at a little village called Charing (Cheeringe)

           to commemmorate one of the stages of the funeral procession of queeen Elanor, the wife of Edward I; the cross remained there until 1647

1292: Lincoln's Inn opgericht (genoemd naar Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, raadsheer van Edward I); opleidingsplaats voor rechtenstudenten; en algemenere studies

1293: Holy Trinity Church at the Minories (the road between the Tower and Aldgate), previously built as part of a Minority nunnery

1327-1377: de regeerperiode van Koning Edward III

            Southwark werd door de kong onder bestuur van de City gesteld "in perpetuity" (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1327: Parish Church of Chelsea

1357: Gray's Inn, built as a school of law, between what became later known as Gray's Inn Road and Clerkenwell Road; the Hall was built in 1560, the gardens planted in 1609

1371: Carthusian monastry built (= Chartehouse)

1385: Custom House, Lower Thames Street

early 15th century: first London corporation building, later called The Guildhall, which burnt down in 1666

1411: Guildhall, King Street, Cheapside

1413-1422: de regeerperiode van Koning Henry V

           Leadenhall, built as a public granary ; eerste gebruik van baksteen, vervaardigd in Moorfields, in woningbouw (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1466: Crosby Palace, at Bishopsgate, highest town house at the time, became residence of rRchard II in 1483, and embasadors in Elizabethan times, burnt down in 1666

1485-1509: de regeerperiode van Koning Henry VII

          de Fleet-rivier werd bevaarbaar gemaakt tot aan Holborn Bridge;

           het water van Houndsditch werd overkoepeld (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

           een (boog)schuttersveld werd aangelegd in Finsbury, het latere artillerie-trainingsveld

early 16th century: Debtford Dockyards established during the reign of Henry VIII

1503: Westminster Abbey voltooid (bouw begonnen in 1245)

1509: bevolkingsaantal van Londen: ca. 50.000

1509-1547: de regeerperiode van Koning Henry VIII

           afbraak van abdijen en kloosters; bestratingswerkzaamheden (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

           St. Agnes le Clere, at Old-Street Road was already known, and is said to be "effacacious in rheumatics and nervous cases" (zie: New Picture of London)

1505: The Savoy Chapel Royal, aan the Strand, een gasthuis (hospital) en kapel, tijdens het bewind van Henry VIII; later afgebroken vanwege de bouw van Westminster Bridge

1547-1553: de regeerperiode van Koning Edward VI

           bouw van 3 ziekenhuizen/gasthuizen noodzakelijk a.g.v. de afbraak van kloosters: Christ's, Bridewell, St. Thomas's (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1547: Somerset Palace gebouwd (onder James I "Denmark House" genaamd, vanaf 1776 "Somerset House") , op plaats van bischoppelijke townhouses en 2 kerken;

           Ontworpen door John of Padua, naar verluid eerste Londense gebouw in de  Italiaanse stijl (Renaissance); vanaf 1775 publiek  eigendom, van 1776 tot 1786 herbouwd

1553: Christ's Hospital, Newgate Street, on the site of the old Grey Friars' Monastry (King Edward street & Gilspur Street)

           Bridewell Prison and Hospital, located on the banks of the Fleet River, at the site of a former royal palace (now Bridge Street)

1558-1603: de regeerperiode van Koningin Elizabeth

           uit deze periode dateeert een stadplattegrond waarop de ontwikkeling van de stad tot die periode te zien is

           (zie de plattegrond d.d. 1600 uit A New View of London, van Edward Hatton, en de omschrijving uit New Picture of London, van Samuel Leigh 1824-5):

           - het dichtsbebouwde stadsdeel binnen de stadswalllen strekte zich uit van Newgate Street, Cheapside en Cornhill tot de oevers van de Theems

           - het huidige Whitechapel telde nog maar enekele huizen

           - Houndsditch, buiten de stadswal, telde een enkele rij huizen, en eindigde in open veld

           - Spital Fields was nog geheel onbebouwd

           - tussen Bishopsgate Without tot aan Shoreditch Church liep een tamelijk regelmatig bebouwde weg, met hier en daar nog lege plekken

           - van Holborn Bridge tot aan het latere Red Lion Street stonden aan weerszijden van de weg huizen

           -  Het latere Leicester Square, Long Acre, Seven Dials, Drury Lane (tot aan Wych Street) was nog geheel onbebouwd

           - de "Convent Garde" strekte zich nog als tuin uit tot aan het latere Drury Lane

           - St. Giles-in-the-Fields was nog een afzonderlijk dorp

           - de weg van King Street tot aan Westminster Abbey was volgebouwd

           - de weg van Whitehall Palace tot aan Palace Yard was volgebouwd

           - St. James's Hospital stond nog op de plek van hte latere St. James's Palace

           - Goswell Street heette toen "the road to St. Albans"

           - De weg van Oxford Road naar Piccadilly heette toen "the Way from Reading" (via het latere Hedge Lane en The Haymarket)

           - The Strand was aan beide zijden bebouwd "principally formed of the mansions of the nobility and prelates"

           - "Several houses stood also near the present Abingdon-street, and on the shore opposite to Lambeth-palace."

           - "On the Surrey side of the Thames, there were but six or seven houses from Lambeth-palace to the shore opposite White Friars,

             where a line of houses with gardens commenced, which were continued to Winchester-house in Southwark."

           - "On the site of the present Christchurch, stood a theatre with gardens; the place was called Paris Garden."

           - "Opposite to Queenhithe were the circular buildings appropriated to bull and bear baitings, which Elizabeth often witnessed."

           - Southwark "extended but a little way down the High Street"

           - Tooley Street was tot aan Horsleydown volgebouwd, maar verederop stonden nog slechts enkele huizen en tuinen

           - London Bridge "was crowded with buildings"

1560: Gray's Inn Hall, the gardens were planted in 1600 (Gray's Inn was started as a school of law in 1357)

1563: bevolkingsaantal van Londen: ca. 90.000

1570-1: Royal Exchange, building opened on 23 January at Cornhill; the first Exchange was founded in 1566 (inspired by Thomas Gresham(, burnt down in 1666 and in 1838

1571: Harrow public school

1572: Middle Temple Hall

           succesvolle drainage van Moorfields, met aanleg van paden van de City naar Islington en Hoxton

1576: 1e londense theater, The Theatre in Southwark, tot 1597, later elders herbouwd als The Globe

1577: 2de Londense theater The Curtain (op de locatie van het hedendaagse Curtain Road, te Shoreditch

1580: Elizabeth I bepaalde dat onbebouwd gebied binnen een afstand van 3 mijl vanaf de stadspoorten groen moest blijven

           (bijv. St. Giles, St. Martin's, het gebied van het latere Leicester Square (heette toen Lammas land) en Soho (parkland)

1583: bevolkingsaantal van Londen: ca. 120.000

1585: Artillery Ground near Finsbury Square (the foundation of the Honourable Artillery Company)

1587: het theater The Rose

1596: bouw van het theater The Swan, aan de Bankside ("close to the river, accessible by several landing-stages or 'stairs'")

1597: Gresham College located at Bishopsgate until 1768; it later moved around London until it got its premises at Gresham Street in 1842

1598: John Stow's 1st edition of The Survey of London


1603-1625: de regeerperiode van Koning James I

           eerste gebruik van "flagstones" in de bestrating (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5):

1603: Norfolk College built as an almshouse at Greenwich

            bevolkingsaantal van Londen: ca. 200.000

1605: Northumberland House, aan the Strand, dat inmiddels was volgebouwd met town houses / mansions, etc.

1607: Holland House, Kensington (outside the 3-mile zone, away from the air pollution caused by burning 'sea-coal' + snobbery of wishing to live apart from tradesmen

1609: the gardens at Gray's Inn (zie 1357) were planted and "became a fashionable promenade" in the time of the Stuarts

1611: Piccadilly Hall, op de plaats van het huidige Great Windmill Street, eigendom van een handelaar in 'piccadills' (i.e. 'the ruffs and collars fashionable then')

1613: opening van het waterreservoir in Clerkenwell & start of construction of the New River (zie 1620)

           The Picture of London for 1816 (Phillips) meldde dat in dit jaar The New River was voltooid "from "wo springs, at Cladwell and Amwell, in Hertfordshire (...)

            to a bason called the New River Head, near Islington", zie ook 1816.

1618: Lincoln Inn's Fields, started by Inigo Jones, later to become the largest square in London

1619: Banqueting House, as part of Inigo Jones's plans for the new royal residence for James I at Whitehall Palace.

1620: The New River between Chadswell Springs [?] in Hertfordshire, and Clerkenwell finished (projected in 1608)

1627: Piccadilly Street krijgt haar naam omstreeks deze tijd, nadat de weg van Piccadilly Hall naar Reading steeds meer volgebouwd was geraakt

1631: Covent Garden; een quadrangle met gebouwen met een piazza gebouwd door Inigo Jones, grensend aan het landgoed van de Duke of Bedford aan the Strand

           "started with a few temporary stalls"; voorheen "the garden of the demolished garden of the convent of St. Peter's; de marktgebouwen dateren pas van 1830

1633: St. Pauls'Church, aan Covent Garden, gebouwd door Inigo Jones, in 1795 afgebrand en herbouwd

1638: Lincoln's Inn Fields built up with 32 houses on previously open fields between High Holborn and Drury Lane

1640: City Temple, a Non-Conformist Church at Anchor Lane, moved to Paved Aley in 1672, to Miles Lane in 1755, to Camomile St. in 1766, to the Poulltry Chapel in 1819,

            and to the south-west of Holborn Viaduct in 1873

1649-1660: de Commonwealth onder Oliver Cromwell

           begin van ontwikkeling/bebouwing van Covent Garden, Long Acre, Lincoln's Inn Fields, en Claremarket (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5):

1650: eerste stagecoaches in Londen omstreeks deze tijd; voordien waren er de langzame 'stage waggons'

1656: great frost

1660: The General Post-Office "situated up a passage on the south side of Lombard-street" (from: Picture of London for 1816); zie ook 1826

1660-1668: Pall Mall ("the Mall") was laid out by Charles II in St. James's Park as a playground, along which new houses were built, e.g. of Nell Gwynn;

           building restrictions were lifted between St. James's Palace and Whitehall Palace; also rapid housing development along Piccadilly Street (zie 1611 / 1627)

            Clarendon House, Burlington House, Berkeley House, etc. were built;

           rapid housing development of "West End" (Soho; between the Strand and the river; in Red Lion Fields, by developers Henry Jermyn / Dr. Nicholas Barbon

           The Mall was not yet a thoroughfare. The site of Buckingham Palace was still occupied by Goring House, later called Arlington House, and Mulberry Garden

           St. James's Field was renamed as St. James's Square; surrounding streets were laid out

1663: Drury Lane Theatre, op hoek van Russell Street & Catherine Street, 3 keer herbouwd na brand, in 1674 (afgebrand in 1672), 194, 3n 1812 (afgebrand in 1809)

1664: first Horse Guards Building at the site of the tiltyard of Westminster Palace in Tudor times; it was demolished in 1749, and replaced by a new building in 1753

           Haymarket (genoemd naar de hooimarkt die er tot 1831 plaatsvond)

           St. James's Church, Piccadilly

1665: bevolkingsaantal ca. 500,000

1665: great plague; London City within the walls had become an unattractive, smelly, foggy, smoking place "with crooked alleys and beetling timbered houses" (Concise History)

           "The cause of this dereadful calamity was ascribed to the importation of infected goods from Holland, where the plague had committed great ravages the preceding year"

           (From: The Picture of London for the Year 1816, p. 13)

1666: The Great Fire

1670: Mercer's School moved to the Old Jewry after the Great Fire; the original Mercer's School dated from the 15th century; in 1787 it moved to Budge Row,

            in 1804 to Watling Street, in 1808 to College Hill, in 1894 to Barnard's Inn Street

1674: Custom House (building started in 1669), burnt down in early 18th century

1675: Royal Observatory at Greenwich (designed by Christopher Wren)

1680: The New Canal was completed, following part of the course of the old Fleet River, which rises at Hampstead

1681: Royal Hospital, Chelsea

1683: great frost (Thames fronzen over)

1685-1688: de regeerperiode van James II

           meer dan 13.000 Franse Protestanten vluchtten na de herroeping van het Edict van Nantes naar Londen: "the suburbs of the metropolis were much increased"

           ze vestigden zich met name in Long Acre, Seven Dials, Soho, en Spital Fileds (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5):

1685: Church of St. Lawrence, by Christopher Wren, to replace the previous church built at Guildford Yard during the reign of Edward I after the Jews were expelled

1688-1702: de regeerperiode van William en Mary

           flinke uitbreidingen naar het westen; "St. Giles's en St. Martin's-in-the-fields, becoming then incorporated with the capital,

           which began to approach the yet distant village of St. Mary-le-bone" (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5).

           bouw van Arlington House (het latere Buckingham House), Marlborough House

           verdere uitbreiding van Clerkenwell, Old Street, "the lower parts" van Shoreditch, woningen ten noorden van Holborn

           aanleg van Marlborough Street in Soho, Bedford Row, Red-Lion Square

1694: Bank of England, located at the site of Grocer's Hall in the Poultry (during reign of William III, based on the Dutch system); moved to Threadneedle Street in 1734

1696: Trinity (Seamen's) Almshouse, at Mile End Road

1698: Whitehall Palace burnt down; its grounds were laid out by Henry VIII, royal palace during James I,Charles I, Charles II

           Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, "was originally a small tenement, built in 1698, by the Earl of Bradford's coachman" (from: Picture of London for 1816)

1699: Billingsgate Market became a fishmarket, geronoveerd van 1852 tot 1877

1702: Haymarket Theatre, herbouwd in 1767 en 1878

1708: A New View of London, Edward Hatton, met een kaart van Londen uit 1707, during Queen Anne's reign, met de volgende kenmerken:

           - langs noordoever van de Thames van west naar oost: Tuthill Fields, Horse Ferry (tegenover Lambeth House), Parlament Staires, Westminster Hall, Westminster Staires,

               White Hall Staires, Hungerford Staires, Temple Staires, Black Friars Staires, Queen Hith (?), Old Swan, London Bridge, Billingsgate, Custom House, The Tower,

              St. Kathrine's Staires, Hermitage Staires, Wapping Staires, Execution Dock, New Crain (?), The Pool, Bell Wharfe, Ratliff Dock (?)

          - langs de zuidoever van de Thames van west naar oost: Lambeth House, Cupers Staires, Old Barge House, Christ Church, Paris Garden, London Bridge, Bridge H.,

                       Old Staires, New Staires, Savoryes Dock (?), Redriff Staires, Swan Staires, Globe Staires,

          - van west naar oost langs noordgrens van bebouwing: vermelding van aparte dorpjes St. Giles in the Fields / Cock & Pye Fields, Road to Oxford zonder bebouwing,

            Montague House, Southampton House, St. George's Chappell, Queen's Square, Bloomsbury Square, Red Lion Square, Gray's Inn, crossing the River Fleet,

            north of West Smith Field, north of Charter House, Hoxton als apart dorp

          - van west naar oost langs vanaf "Road to Oxford", langs noordzijde van "Soho", High Holborn, noordelijk langs Lincoln's Inn Fields, Holborn, St. Paul's Cathedral,

             Cheap Side, Corn Hill (?), Aldgate, White Chapel, "The Road to Harwich", met zuidelijke route naar het dorpje Stepney

          - van west naar oost langs vanaf Piccadilly, Hay Market, Leicester Square, Covent Garden, Drury Lane oversteken, Lincoln's Inn Fields, etc.

          - van west naar oost vanaf White Chapel in meer zuidelijke richting langs de Tower, White Horse Lane, Hangman's Acre,

          - van west naar oost vanaf de Tower langs de Thames: Marine Square, Garden Grounds, Shadwell, Bell Wharfe

          - van west naar oost vanaf Buckingham House: St. James's Park, The Palace of St. James's, Pall Mall Street, Charing Cross, The Strand, The Temple, Fleet Street,

                                                                                      St. Paul's Cathedral

         - van west naar oost zuidelijk van Thames: Christ Church, The Borough or Long Southwark Street oversteken, St. George Church, Baraley Street, St. Mary Magdalen Bermondsey

          - van zuid naar noord over London Bridge: Road to Croyden, Blackman Street, The Borough or Long Southwark, London Bridge,

                                                                                      N. Fish Street Hill (?), Grass Church Street (?), Bishops Gate Street, Shore Ditch, Road to Ware

          - van zuid naar noord: Moor Fields (onbebouwd), Upper Moor Fields, Artillery Ground (met bebouwing aan de westkant, maar alles onbebouwd aan de noordkant)

            Hoxton (een cluster bebouwing en wat straten, Asks or Haberdashers' Hospital, Road to Ware

          - van zuid naar noord vanaf Cheapside / St. Paul's Cathedral, Smith Field, Charter House (with empty surrroundings, with ribbon development along "Road to Islington",

            New River Pond (waterreservoir)

          - van zuid naar noord vanaf St. James's Park (met "Decoy"), The Palace of St. James's, Pall Mall Street, langs St. James's Square, Piccadilly oversteken, Golden Square,

           langs huidige Bond Street (?), tot aan de "Road to Oxford"

          - het gebied langs de Thames ten zuiden van St. James's Park (het huidige Pimlico) is bebouwd: ....................................................

          - het gebied ten westen van Bond Street tot aan Hyde Park is nog onbebouwd (waar later Mayfair zou komen)

1710: St Paul's Cathedral, herbouw begonnen in 1675

           Marlborough House (naar de beroemde veldheer die tijdens de Spaanse Successieoorlog o.a. aan de zijde van Willem III vocht; bouw begon in 1707

           The Royal Society moved to Crane Court, after it had previously had its accommodation at Gresham College since 1663

1714-1727: de regeerperiode van George I

           forse stadsuitbreiding met alle straten tussen Oxford Road en Mary-le-bone Lane

           ontwikkeling van Berkeley Square en omliggende straten

           bouw van 50 nieuwe kerken (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1714: Parish Church at Kew

1715: Cavendish Square, planned by the Duke of Chandos who lived 9 miles out of town; it was developed in the following years

1717: The Church of St. Mary-le-Strand

1718: Hanover Square, named in recognition of George I

1719: Westminster Hospital

1720: Southampton Fields, at the site where Russell Square was later laid out

1720: John Strype publishes an updated and enlarged edition of John Stow's Survey of London:


1720: South Sea Bubble, speculatiegolf gevolgd door totale ineenstorting van de koersen en talrijke failissementen, waardoor ook bouwontwikkelingen stil kwamen te liggen.

           O.a het in 1715 gelanceerde plan voor de ontwikkeling van Cavendish Squares met een bijbehorend stratenplan ten noorden van Tyburn Road (Oxford Street):

           "Lord Harcourt and Lord Bingley took some ground on the east and west sides, and the rest was let to builders; but the failures of the South Sea Scheme stopped

           these improvements for some time, till at length, to induce the builders to go on, a chapel and Oxford market were projected for the convenience of the new inhabitants."

          (Picture of London for 1816, p. 18)

1721: Guy's Hospital at Tooley Street

1726: Church of St. Martin-in the-Fields built of the site of a smaller church built during the reign of Henry III

1727-1760: de regeerperiode van Koning George II

           "A great part of Fleet-ditch, which had become a vile nuisance, was arched over" (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

           aanleg van Grosvenor Square en omliggende straten;

           Bridge Street, Great George-street, en Parliament Street werden aangelegde ter vervanging van "several mean, inconvenient streets";

           Borough Road en Kent Road werden aangelegd door St. George's Fields

           Aanleg van een nieuwe weg tussen Paddington en Islington

            In housebuilding: first appearance of terraced houses: "dull looking drab brick formal terraces of the mid 1700s"

1729: "The row of houses on the north side of Tyburn Road or Oxford-street, from Rathbone-place to Vere-street, was completed" (Picture of London for 1816, p. 18)

           About this time, too""the following streets in the vicinity were built, and the ground laid for several others, viz. ...."(p. 18)

1731: St. George's Church at Hart Street (between Russell Square and New Oxford Street)

1732: Italian Opera House, at Covent Garden, burnt down in 1808, rebuilt in 1809, burnt again in 1856, rebuilt in 1858

           Oxford Market (as part of the development of the area north of Oxford Street)

           "Fleet Ditch, which ran all the way up the middle of Fleet-market (...) was arched over, to make room for the removal of Stock's market, which used to be held on the spot where the     

           Mansion House stands, but it was not until Blackfriars bridge had been erected, between 1760 and 1768, that the ditch which used to run close up to Ludgate-hill was filled up."

           (Picture of London for 1816, p. 18)

1733: Serpentine River aangelegd in Kensington Gardens, created by damming in the little Westbourne River

1734: St. George's Hospital

           Bank of England moved to Threadneedle Street, at the site of the churchyard of St. Christopher, (see 1694)

1737: Fleet Market, created by covering over part of Fleet River between Holborn and Ludgate Circus (zie ook 1769); tot ca. 1824 (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1739: Foundling Hospital at Guildford Place (Guildford Street, off Russell Square)

1740: The London Hospital

1741: Mansion House (begonnen in 1739)

1745: Middlesex Hospital, built at the corner of Mortimer Street and Cleveland Street

           Montague House built for Lady Montague, the celebrated authoress

1746: burial ground in Bethnal Green, about 2,5 acres, 56,000 bodies buried,

1747: Corn Exchange, Mark Lane, City, gedeeltelijk herbouwd in 1827 en heropend in 1828, uitgebreid in 1853

1748: Peerless Pool, on City Road ("the completest bath in the metropolis", zie The New Picture of London, 1824)

1749: Lying-in Hospital (for women in child-bed)

1750: Westminster Bridge, begonnen in 1739

1752: Chesterfield House

           Norfolk House, at St. James's Square

1753: Horse Guards, the heaquarters of the British army, was rebuilt at Whitehall (the old building dated from 1664 and was demolished in 1749

1754: British Museum, Russell Street, Bloomsbury (aangekocht voor de collectie van Hans Sloane als Montague House)

            Royal Society of Arts, Duke Street (zijstraat van the Strand), officiële naam: Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce

           Royal Victualling Yard removed from Tower Hill & Crutched Friars to debtford

1754: Hedendaagsche Historie ... van Groot-Bittannië, met "Kaart van Londen, enz. en van het Nabygelegen Land ruim een Uur gaans rondom dfezelve Stad,

            getrokken uit de groote gemeeten Kaart van Hr. John Rocque", door Herman Moll

           - Nieuwe Rivier, met de "Kolk van de Nieuwe Rivier" (= River Head)

           - gebied tussen Bond Street en Hyde Park (Mayfair) is nu bebouwd

1758: last houses removed from London Bridge due to fire risk

1759: Montague House becomes the home of The British Museum after the purchase of the collection of Sir Hans Busk in 1753; the building was converted 1823-1852

           The Admiralty (by chief architect Robert Adam), te Whitehall op de locatie van het vroegere wallingford House

            (volgens London, a Concise History, werd de Admiralty in de periode van William II, omstreeks 1700, gebouwd)

           The London Hospital at whitechapel Road (started in 1752, with further wings added in later years

1760-1820: de regeerperiode van Koning George III, inclusief de Regency Period

           Bridge Street en Chatham Place werden aangelegd bovenop de overkoepelde "proverbially dismal Fleet ditch" (zie New Picture of London, 1824-5)

           St. George's Fields werd volgebouwd

           St. Pancras werd verder ontwikkeld

           Mary-le-bone werd een aaneengesloten deel van de stad ("an integral part of the metropolis")

           In The New Picture of London (1824-editie) werd de uitbreiding van de stad in deze periode als volgt beschreven:

          "During the late reign, the houses in Mary-le-bone were said to 'rise like exhalations', and a similar assertion would apply to the immense masses of buildings

          which have since been erected  in the vicinity of Paddington, the Edgeware -road, Regent's-park, the New-road, Tottenham-court-road, Camden-town, Somers'-town,

          Russell-square, Cold-bath-fields, Pentonville, Northampton-square, City-road, Hackney, Bethnal-green, Mile-end, Bow, Stepney, and Poplar -

          in short, most of these places may be said to form a portion of this extended city." (p. 415)

           Ook het gebied ten zuiden van de Thames breidde zich snel uit a.g.v. de aanleg van 3 nieuwe bruggen tijdens de voorgaande periode van George II:

           "The erection of Westminster, Blackfriars and Waterloo bridges has caused a similar, though unequal, expansion of the metropolis on the south side of the river,

            which is now occupied by numerous streets" (p. 415)

           Great Dover Street vanaf "the Bull", nabij de Bricklayers'Arms tot aan de Borough Road bij St. George's Church

1760: Botanic Gardens at Kew

1761: 7 van de 9 toegangspoorten tot de City verwijderd; alleen Temple Bar Gate (tot 1878) & St. John's Gate bleven over)

1762: Lansdowne House, at Berkeley Square

            free-school built at High-gate, near an old hermitage

1764: Robert Adam appointed architect to the Crown; he added more elaborate and lighter touches to the Georgian style

1768: Royal Academy, Trafalgar Square

           Inland Revenue Office, aan Old Broad Street op de locatie van het vroegere Gresham College

1769: Blackfriars Bridge, originally called "Pitt Bridge"

           New Bridge Street was laid out by covering the part of Fleet River between Ludgate Circus and the Thames (see 1737); Fleet River now entirely subterranean in London

           In housebuilding: Coade Artificial Stone Manufactory, at Narrow-Wall in Lambeth, later removed to New Road;

           Coade & Co. Manuafactory of Ornamental Stone and Scagliola Marble" was mentioned in The New Picture of London among the "Exhibitions of Works of Art"

1770: Newgate Prison gerenoveerd in the Old Bailey, for felons only; het oorspronkelijke gebouw dateert van 1188

           "The continuation of Harley Street was completed;

           "Mansfield-street, a little to the north, was formed upon the spot where a body of water, called Mary-le-bonne basin [sic], had been;

           "Portland-place and the streets adjoining, soon rose after." (Picture of London for 1816, p. 18)

1773: Philip Astley's Circus, at Westminster Bridge Road, later replaced by Sanger's Amphitheatre

1774: Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, John Street, Adelphi

           Astley's Theatre, originally on the Surrey side of the Thames, burnt down in 1794, 1803, 1841 to Westminster Road

           headquarters of the British Humane Society built near Trafalgar Square, below Duncannon Street

           The Building Act of that year "banned the use of timber on the exterior of dwellings" (no wooden door cases, window shutters); window frames were set in brickwork

           Stratford-place was built near Oxford Street; "Cumberland-place, intended for a circus, was begun about the same year." (Picture of London for 1816, p. 18)

1776: begin aanleg van Manchester Square

1777: Wesley's Chapel, built at Golden Lane opposite the Bunhill Fields Cemetery

1779: School for the Blind, St. George's Fields, Southwark

1781: Surrey County Jail (???, according to New Picture of London, zie ook 1799)

1782: Royal Society removed from Crane Court (off Fleet Street) to Somerset House

1783: last execution at Tyburn on 7 Nov. (corner of Oxford St. & Edgeware Rd)

1784: eerste gebruik van mail-coaches door Mr. Palmer die op 24 augustus van Londen naar Bristol reed voor de bezorging van brievenpost (zie Murray, 1851, p. 51)

1786: Somerset House herbouwd (vanaf 1776) aan the Strand, het oorspronkelijke gebouw dateerde van 1547

           From this year on "till the commencement of the French War, the new buildings increased with the greatest rapidity [on the Duke of Portland's property],

           and the buildings on the north-west side of Mary-le-bonne [sic]were equally numerous north of Oxford Street."

1790: Her Majesty's Theatre (= Opera House) at Haymarket

1792: Uxbridge House, Burlingtom Gardens

1799: Horsemonger Lane Gaol, (built from 1791) renamed Surrey County Gaol in 1851, closed in 1878, demolished in 1881, located at Newington Causeway, Southwark

1799: The Picture of London (published by Richard Phillips) vermeldt over de stadsontwikkelingen van 1748 tot 1799:

           "The increase of London from the year 1748 to the close of the year 1799, may be summed up as follows": (p.17)

           - in the north-east: new buildings between Goodman's Fields and Stepney; between White Chapel Road and Shadwell, between Hackney & Bethnal Green to Mile End

           - in the south-east: new buildings in "the whole space which was formerly denominated St. George's Fields, sufficient to form a considerable city."

           - in the south-west: "Continuing towards Chelsea, Walham-green, Kensington to Hyde Park Corner, the whole extent is covered with convenient buildings of elegant structure."

           - in the north-west: "From Bayswater to Paddington, Hampstead, Highgate, by Highbury, to Kingsland and Hackney (...),

                           the whole of Lisson-green, Camden Town, Somer's Town, Pentonville, Holloway, Highbury, and Kingsland, have risen within memory to an amazing extent.

                           The tracts of ground have been formed into magnificent squares and streets, even of stately mansions.

                           The improvements of the greatest consequence have been mostly on the north side of the metropolis.

                           Thus the large parishes of Paddington, St. Mary-la-bonne [sic], and Pancras, with the additional buildings in St. Giles in the Fields, have been wholly built;

                           and the Middlesex and Foundling Hospitals (...) are now [in 1799] surrounded with handsome streets.The superb squares which have been formed are,

                           Portman, Manchester, Fitzroy, Bedford, Tavistock, Russel, and Brunswick, besides that magnificent range of palaces, Portland place." (pp.17-18)

early 1800s: in housebuilding: "semi-detached pairs of dwellings made their first appearance in the early 1800s" (Inspections, p. 130)

1801: Royal Military Asylum, Chelsea

1802: West India Docks (tussen Limehouse en Blackwall, aanleg begon in 1800)

           Madame Tussaud's waxworks opened at the Strand

1805: London Docks, at Wapping, between St. Katherine's Docks & ratcliffe Highway

1806: East India Docks, Blackwall (bouw begon in 1805)

           Royal Military Academy at Woolwich

           Olympia Theatre

1807: Commercial Docks ("Surrey Docks") on the south side of the Thames, previously called the Greenland Docks

1809: Horticultural Society (groot terrei in South Kensington en Chiswick)

1810: Church of St. Dunstan-in-the-East, at Idol Lane, off Lower Thames Street, built on the site of a temple, destroyed and rebuilt in 1666.

1811: bevolkinsgaantal: 1.099.104 (zie: Picture of London for 1816, p. 24)

            Royal Mint, rebuilt near Trinity House, north of Tower Hill

           National Society, Office, Sanctuary, Westminster

1812: Millbank Prison, originally called "Penetentiary House for London and Middlesex", for prisoners sentenced to transportation, detained for 3 months

           Egyptian Hall (at Piccadilly)

           Drury Lane Theatre herbouwd (zie 1663)

1813: New Debtor's Prison, at White-Cross Street

1815: Whitecross Street Prison, for debtors

            new Bethlehem Hospital ("New Bethlem"), at St. George's Road; it "superceded the 'Old Bedlam' in Moorfields"

            first steamboat on the Thames, a packet to Margate

1816: Vauxhall Bridge, constructie begonnen in 1811

           Royal Adelphi Theatre, aan the Strand, herbouwd in 1858

1816: The Picture of London for 1816 (17th edition, published by Richard Phillips) vermeldt:

           - population according to census of 1811: 1,099,104

           - Islington is "a considerable village N. of London, to which it is now united. At the Angel Inn are several roads diverging towards the capital,

             (...) a circumstance which proves convenient to those inhabitants whose occupations call them to town in the daytime."(p. 300)

           - "Until recently, (...) the New River Company had been unable to supply the higher parts of London with water; consequently, all the houses

             about Tottenham-court-road and Mary-la-bone[sic!] have their waters from the Hampstead ponds. To remedy this,an immense bason has been formed,

             in the Hampstead road, oppositie Charles's street; into which water is brought from Islington". (pp. 298-299)

          - bij het eindpunt van de Grand Junction Canal (een belangrijke schakel in het Britse kanalennetwerk), in Paddington ( "the Canal Head"):

            "every accommodatin has been made for the convenience of a weekly market, for cattle, hay, &c. and this new market may justly be considered an improvement

            upon which the public ought to be congratulated, as tending to diminish the disgusting nuisance of Smithfield"(p. 299)

           - The Post-Office system is, at present, one of the most perfect regulations of finance existing under any government.

             A few years ago letters were conveyed in carts, unprotected, and subject to delay. At present they are carried by mail coaches, provided with a guard,

             and forwarded at a rate of eight miles an hour."(p. 163)

             The mail coaches from London depart from:

             the Golden Cross at Charing Cross, the Bull and Mouth, the Angel at St. Clements, the Swan at Lad-lane, the Spread Eagle, the Bell and Crown at Holborn (p. 168)

          - The Thames: "The water is esteemed extremely wholesome, and fit for use in very long voyages, during which it will work perfect" (p. 298)

          - "There are not less than 159 hotels and coffee-houses in the metropolis, besides seventy-eight principal inns, and upwards of 5000 alehouses" (p. 285)

1817: Waterloo Bridge, constructed;

           Spa Fields, at Clerkenwell, converted from an open field into a built-up area (a popular mineral spring in the 17th & early 18th century)

           The Custom House aan Lower Thames Street voltooid (sinds 1814), ook in de 18e eeuw al eens herbouwd, de eerste bouw was in 1674

1819: Southwark Bridge, eerste ijzeren brug over de Themaes ("the iron bridge")

           Burlington Arcade (built from 1815 in Regency style)

1820-1837: de regeerperiode van Koning George IV (tot die tijd bekend als de Prince Regent)

           aanleg van "Regent Street en Regent's Park, ofwel "Mary-le-Bone Park", en ontwikkeling van het gebied in de omgeving van de nieuwe London Bridge

           In The New Picture of London (1824-editie werd ook melding gemaakt van de aanleg van Union Square, later bekend als Trafalgar Square, en omgeving:

           "Great alterations have been made in the vicinity of the Haymarket, by pulling donw Suffolk-street and part of Whitcomb-street, rebuilding the Haymarket theatre

           facing Charles-street, continiuing Pall-mall (pall-mall east), so as to afford a view of St. Martin's church, and forming a spacious and handsome street

           in front of the Opera-house..Cockspur -street has likewise been made wider, the north side having been rebuilt on an extensive scale,

           and an open space termed Union Square has been formed in front of St. Martin's church." (p. 417)

           Moorfields was enclosed, "on which a circular range of buildings, termed Finsbury Circus , has been erected"(p. 417)

           In een latere editie van Leigh's New Picture of London (1830) werden de (geplande) veranderingen aan weerszijden van de nieuwe London Bridge verder beschreven:

           "The erection of New london-bridge has caused an important alteration in the Borough [of Southwark]. The street from the bridge to the Town-hall

           will be nearly double its former width, and a new road will be formed from the bridge to Tooley-street. (...)

           On the London side, the road from the bridge will cross Thames-street by an arch (...)" (p. 339)

           Ook wat betreft Union Square (het latere Trafalgar Square) waren er ingrijpende wijzigingsplannen;

           "On the site of the King's-mews it is proposed to erect the new National Gallery of Painting and sculpture. (...)

           A new Police-office is to be built at the corner of Chandos-street and of St. Martin's-lane, instead of the present office in Bow-street." 9p. 230)

           Verder was er op de plaats van de Carlton Palace Gardens een plein (Square) aangelegd.

           Op de plaasts van Carlton Palace bevonden zich nu "the United Service and Athenaeum Club-houses."

           A carriage-way has been made from King-street into St. James's-street.

           Hyde Park has been much improved (...) and an entirely new drive has been made from Cumberland-gate to the N.E. entrance of Kensington-gardens.

           The fields between Grosvenor-place and Sloane-street have, within a few years, been covered with buildings, intended for the higher classes of society.

           At Pimlico, near the junction of the Vauxhall and Chelsea roads, a spacious dock, or basin, has been formed.

           The ground between this dock and the Thames, formerly occupied by gardens, is to be the site of a new town.

           Fleet-market has been rebuilt in a more convenient situation (...).

1820: Clerkenwell Prison

           Millbank Penetentiary

1821: Haymarket Theatre (tegenover het Opera House)

           bevolkingsaantal: 1,263,595, de City, haar 'liberities', Westminster, Southwark, and villages (1821 census, bron: Samuel Leigh's New Picture of London, 1824-5)

1822: Royal Academy of Music, at Hanover Square

1823: Finsbury Market

           London Bridge waterworks removed to make way for the construction of a new bridge

           Diorama, at the entrance of Regent's Park

1824: Royal Mews, at Buckingham Palace Road

           Fleet Market "about to be removed"(zie 1737)

           National Gallery, aan Pall Mall (vanaf 1838 aan Trafalgar Square, ofwel "Union Square")

1824: Leigh's New Picture of London (revised edition) vermeldt:

           population of 1,200,000 according to the 1821 census

           - "upwards of 6,000" taverns and public houses         

           - "a large mass of new buildings, between Holborn and Somers' Town" (p. 40)

           - "In 1823, a new way of forming the carriage-ways of London was commences at St. James's Square, under the supervision of Mr. McAdam"(p. 42)

          - "cabriolets (...), which are in fact one-horse chaises with heads, were first started in the metropolis, April 23, 1823.

          - since the first steam-packet on the Thames in 1815, "several other vessels, on similar principles have been built, and employed daily during the summer" (p. 1824)

         - there are about 2000 small boats "stationed at the various stairs on the banks" plied by "watermen" as ferries ("wherries") across the Thames

         - public baths (pp. 338 ff.)

1825: begin van de bouw van Buckingham Palace (vanaf 1837 het "town house" van Queen Victoria); zie 1660

1826: (1828?) Zoological Gardens

            ijzeren brug in Kensington Gardens

1827 St. Katherine's Hospital was moved from this site to Regent's Park, to make place for St. katherine's Docks (complted in 1828)

           The Execution Dock, where pirates were hung at Wapping on the riverside, was ordered closed

1828: St. Katherine's Docks completed (built since 1825), vlakbij de Tower

           London College, at Gower Street, later to become London University

           King's College, at the Strand

           Royal Free Hospital at Gray's Inn Road

1829: General Post Office, gebouwd vanaf 1825, at St. Martin's-le-Grand, aan de oostkant van Cheapside; a new addition was built on the opposite side of the road in 1870

           Citaat uit Modern London (Murray, 1851): "as recently as 1826, there was but one receiving office in Pimlico for letters to be delivered within the

           London radius, and the nearest office for receiving general-post letters that a person living in Pimlico could go to was situated in St. James's Street"

           Zie ook: 1660, the General Post-Office at Lombard Street since 1660

           Farringdon Market (New Fleet Market)

           New Bridewell Prison

           Eerste omnibus (met paarden) in London, vanaf the Bank

1830: Princesses' Theatre, Oxford Street

           Covent Garden Market, started in 1656 with a few temporary stalls

1830: Leigh's New Picture of London vermeldt:

           the precise population details are still according to the 1821 census, but "the population has probably increased since that time to 1,500,000"(p.30)

           - "upwards of 6,000"taverns and public houses         

           - a fold-out plan of London, opposite p. 222, shows the "King's Palace" for Buckingham House

1831: Exeter Hall, Strand, vanaf 1881 de locatie van de YMCA

           Strand Theatre

           Fishmongers' Hall is rebuilt (as the third hall on this spot) during the construction of the new London Bridge

1832: vervanging van de oude stenen London Bridge (wordt al afgebeeld, naast de oude brug, op de kaart van Sidney Hall in The New Picture of London in 1830)

           Met de aanleg van de nieuwe brug werden ook nieuwe toegangswegen aangelegd.

           Kensal Green (begraafplaats aan de weg naar Harrow)

           City of London Club at Old Broad Street

           National Library at Northumberland Avenue (verhuisd in 1887)

1833: Duke of York's Column, Waterloo Place

1834: English Opera House, later renamed as Lyceum Theatre, Wellington Street, Strand

           Gresham College temporarily located at Basinghall Street until it moved to Gresham Street in 1842; it was located at Bishopsgate in 1597 until 1768;

           invention of the hansom cab

1835: Royal College of Surgeons of England, Lincoln's Inn Fields

1836: London Bridge Station (zuidzijde Thames), begin aanleg South--Eastern Railway

           Madame Tussaud's Waxwork kreeg permanente locatie in Baker Street Bazaar, Portman Square

           Arts Club, at Hanover Square

           Metropolitan Meat Market, at Islington, opened. (However, Smithfield Market retained its position and

           "salesmen still continued through the crowded street to drive their cattle to the favourite locality of the London butchers"(Modern London, 1851, p. 71)

1838: National Gallery at Trafalgar Square ("Union Square"); het was sinds 1824 gesitueerd aan Pall Mall

           Paddington Station;

           het "Paddington district", tussen Edgeware en Bayswater Rd, aanvankelijk "Tyburnia" genoemd, ontwikkelde zich snel

           Citaat uit it: Modern London (Murray, 1851): "that vast city which has sprung up within the last 12 years from the sod, known as the Paddington district"

           Ook Belgravia kwam tot snelle ontwikkeling (zie Murray).

           In house-building, rolled glass became available : "it was not long before it came into general use being much cheaper" (Inspections and Reports, p. 124)

1839: Royal Botanical Society, Regent's Park

           Wesleyan Centenary Hall & Mission House, at the end of Threadneedle Street

1840: Houses of Parliament, herbouw begonnen op 27 april; de oude Houses waren in 1834 afgebrand

           Princess's Theatre at Oxford Street

           New Royalty Theatre, Dean Street

           Fenchurch Street Station

1841: Victoria Park, oostelijk van Hackney Street, Shoreditch, voorheen de locatie van Stepney Common

1842: The Model Prison, at Pentonville, for prisoners sentenced to transportation, detained for 2 years to learn a trade

            Marshalsea Prison closed, a debtor's prison located on what is now Borough High Street, in Sourthwark, since early 14th century or before

1843: Thames Tunnel (Brunel), aanleg begonnen in 1825; tussen twee drukke commerciële centra, Wapping en Rotherithe

           werd slechts gebruikt als voetgangerstunnel, en toeristische attractie tot 1869, daarna onderdeel van de East London Line (metro)

           Nelson's Monument at Trafalgar Square

1844: The Royal Exchange reopened after burning down in 1838; it was originally founded by Thomas Gresham in 1570-1

1845: Hungerford Suspension Bridge (= Charing Cross Railway Bridge, alleen voor voetgangers, vanaf Hungerford Market naar Belvedere Road

           St. Mary's Hospital, at Cambridge Place near Praed Street; its construction was completed in the following years

           Lincoln's Inn Hall and Library

1846: Euston Station

1848: Waterloo Station

1849: Coal Exchange, Lower Thames Street & St. Mary-at-Hill, vlakbij Billingsgate

            Royal Olympic Theatre, Wych Street

           Great Hall at Euston Square

1850: Royal Children's Hospital at Great ormond Street

1851: Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, voor de Great Exhibition; in 1854 verplaatst naar Sydenham in Zuid Londen; in 1936 door brand vernield

           Museum of Practical Geology, Piccadilly & Jermyn Street (bouw begonnen in 1850)

           Hertford House, Piccadilly

           Bridgewater House completed (started in 1846) at St. James's Street, near Green Park

           (approx.) City of London Prison, Holloway

1852: King's Cross Terminus (Station)

           Montague House made place for the British Museum, which was built from 1823-1852British Museum

1853: Great Western Hotel, bij Paddington Station

1854: Crystal Palace verplaatst naar Sydenham in Zuid Londen; in 1936 door brand vernield

           King's Cross Hotel

1855: Metropolitan Cattle Market removed from Smithfield to Copenhagen Fields between Islington and Camden Town

1858: Chelsea Suspension Bridge (= Victoria Suspension Bridge)

           new layout of Battersea Park, started in 1852)

1859: Royal Marine Barracks at Woolwich

1860: Victoria Station + hotel

1861: The fire at Tooley Street: "one of the most destructive known to London since The Great Fire"

1862: Middle Temple Library

1863: Metropolitan Railway in oostelijke richting aangelegd tussen Paddington en Moorgate Street, in 1876 verlengd tot Aldgate, in 1884 tot Mansion House

1864: Blackfriars Station

           Charing Cross Station

1862: Lambeth Suspension Bridge; nieuwe Westminster Bridge; the old Westminster Bridge dating from 1750; closed to carriages as of 1846 due to poor construction

           Astley's Theatre, at Westminster Road, renamed as the Theatre Royal

           Chelsey Hospital, for old-soldier pensioners

1863: eerste ondergrondse spporlijn van Farringdon Street to Paddington (4 mijl), januari

1864: Hungerford Suspension Bridge gesloopt om plaats te maken  voor een brug tussen twee metrostations (London Bridge Station en Charing Cross Station)

1865: Broad Street Station

           Northern and Southern Outfalls, pumping stations of London drainage system on the north of the Thames near Barking Creek and on the south (Crossness Point)

           opening van het New Surrey Theatre;

           Thames Tunnel aangekocht door East London Railway Company

1866: Cannon Street Station

            viaduct van Blackfriars Station naar New Bridge Street (vlakbij Ludgate Hall in de City)

           Holborn Theatre ("the first new theatre since the Theatre's Act of 1843), renamed The Mirror Theatre in 1875, Duke's Theatre in 1876, burnt down in 1880

           Record Office, construction started in 1851, to replace the Rolls Chapel (Domus Conservorum) built by Henry III

1868: Metropolitan Meat Market at Islington vervangt Smithfield Market (zie 1836)

           Metropolitan Railway vanaf Paddington in westelijke richting naar South Kensington

           St Pancras Station + hotel

           Gaiety Theatre

           Fleet Prison cleared away after its closing in 1845

1869: Thames Tunnel in gebruik als metrotunnel

           Albert Embankment, tussen Westminster Bridge en Vauxhall Bridge, voltooid

           Holburn Valley Viaduct geopend op 6 nov., constructie begon in 1867, "bridging the valley of the River Fleet

           Closing of Debtford dockyards (laid out during the reign of Henry VIII in the 16th century) and of the royal dockyards at Woolwich

1870: Victoria Embankment completed, bwetween Westminster Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge

           Hall of the Inner Temple

           Opera Comique, aan The Strand, tussen Holywell Street en Wych Street

           St. Saviour's Church for the Blind and Deaf, at the end of Oxford Street near Marble Arch

1871: Mansion House Tube station geopend

           (Royal) Albert Hall (building started in 1867)

           St. Thomas's Hospital

1872-1873: Guildhall Free Library

1873: Albert Suspension Bridge (= Cardogan Suspension Bridge)

1874: Congregational Memorial Hall

1875: The Mirror Theatre (heette Holborn Theatre sinds 1866, herdoopt als Duke's Theatre in 1876, afgebrand in 1880

1876: Metropolitan Railway verlengd van Moorgate Street tot Aldgate

           Duke's Theatre herdoopt (heette Holborn Theatre sinds 1866, Mirror Theatre sinds 1875, en afgebrand in 1880

           Poultry and Butter Market moved to the west

1878: Temple Bar Gate gesloopt

1880: Duke's Theatre afgebrand (sinds 1866 Holborn Theatre, en van 1875 tot 1876 Mirror Theatre genaamd)

           Guildhall School of Music, on the Victoria Embankment

1881: Savoy Theatre, aan the Strand (bekend van de burlesque opera's van Gilbert en Sullivan)

           Royal Comedy, Panton Street

           Savoy Hotel, op de plaats van John of Gaunt's paleis, the Savoy Palace

           YMCA gevestigd in Exeter Hall aan the Strand (zie 1831)

           Newgate Prison closed; het oorspronkelijke gebouw dateert van 1188

1882: Royal Palace of Justice, tussen the Strand en Lincoln's Inn Fields, nabij Fleet Street

           Avenue Theatre, in Northumberland Avenue & The Embankment

          City of London School, at the Victoria Embankment

1883: Metropolitan Fish Market moved to the west

1884: Metropolitan Railway verlengd van Aldgate tot Mansion House

1886: Tilbury Docks opened

           second railway bridge opened east of Blackfriars Bridge, partly covered by St. Paul's Station

           Sion College, at John Carpenter Street, off the Victoria Embankment, the institution was founded in 1630

1887: Hammersmith Suspension Bridge

            National Library removed from Northumberland Avenue (zie 1832)

            Baldwin Club, at pall mall

1889: Steam Ferry Boats across the Thames near Woolwich

1890: Battersea Bridge

           afbraak van Sir Paul Pindar's House, aan Bishopsgate Street

           South London Ophthalmic Hospital, facing St. George's Circus, South London

           Vauxhall Park

1891: New Scotland Yard opened on the Victoria Embankment, near Westminster Bridge

1892: Borough Polytechnic Institute in Southwark (on Blackman Street and Borough Road

           Oxford House geopend aan Mape Street, Bethnal Green

           Fruit, Vegetable and Flower Market moved to the west of the Metropolitan Meat Market, near Farringdon Street Railway Station

           City of London School for Girls, on the Victoria Embankment

            Trafalgar Square Theatre, in 1895 Duke of York Theatre genoemd

1893: The Queen's Hall, at Langham Place

            St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, at Soho Square

            daly's Theatre, at Cranbourn Street

1894: Tower Bridge voltooid (bouw begonnen in 1886)

           Institute for Seamen, at east India Docks Road

           Royal College of Music

           Battersea Polytechnic, at Battersea Park Road

           Isleworth Lock, with a bridge for foot passengers, west of Kew (1st lock in the Thames)

1895: St. Mary-le-Strand Public Hall and Library, Drury Lane

           The Clergy House and Highgate School Mission Buildings, at Whitechapel Road

           St. Mary's Churchyard at Woolwich

           The Homeopathic Hospital, next to the Royal Children's Hospital at Great Ormond Street

           Whitefield Gardens, at Tottenham Court Road, near Euston Road at the former burial ground of Whitefield's Tabernacle

           Carlyle House, at Chelsea

1896: National Portrait Gallery open to the public

           Vicarage Road Recreation Ground, ten westen van Battersea aan de Thames

           Cecil Hotel gebouwd, afgebroken in 1930 en vervangen door het Shell-Mex House

           Holborn Public Library, at the junction of High Holborn Street and New Oxford Street

           Bank of Scotland, at Bishopsgate Street

           Cripplegate Institute, at the junction of the Barbican, Beech Street, Redcross Street

1897: Tate Gallery (21 juli geopend, zie o.a. 17e editie van Ward Lock Guide); on the site of the Millbank Penitentiary

           Blackwall Tunnel geopend (op 22 mei na 5 jaar constructie)

           Marylebone Baths opened on 6 March

           Passmore Edward's Settlement, at Tavistock Place

           Her Majesty's Theatre

           great fire started in Well Street, in the City, on 19 Nov., in which about 100 houses burnt down

1898: New Pavillion at kennington Oval

1899: Carlton Hotel

1904: Ritz Hotel, at Piccadilly

1905: Aldwych

           Kingsway  was laid out between Drury lane and Lincoln's Inn Fields

1912: County Hall, aan de oostzijde van Westminster Bridge

1930: Shell-Mex House op de plaast van Cecil Hotel

1932: Lambeth Bridge ter vervanging van de oude Suspension Bridge

1948: Royal Festival Hall, op de plaats van de Lion Brewery