ATLASES - GEOGRAPHIES - HISTORICAL TIMELINES

sources:

List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, Vols 1, 2, ed. by P.L. Philips, 1909-...;

American Maps and Mapmakers, by Walter W. Ristow, 1985

Images of the World, Library of Congress, ed. Wolter & Grim, including chapter "Early American Atlases and their Publishers" by Walter W. Ristow.

(Cartographica Extraordinaire, Rumsey & Punt, 2004)

davidrumsey.com (overzicht kaartencollectie)

British Library catalogue

Copac search

bookfinder.com

abebook.com

addall.com

Google books

archive.org

openlibrary.org

atlases (zie afbeeldingen) :

Bacon's New Large-Print Map of London and Suburbs, 1911 (€5,-)

Bacon's Motoring and Cycling Road Map of Ireland, €20 ("Eire", post-1921, pre-1937)

Bacon's Atlas & Guide to London, approx. 1947

Bell's System of Geography (1831)

             Vol. I, Part I, 1839, General geography: mathematical, physical, political: Europe, Russia, Poland, Denmark, Germany, Austrian Empire, Prussia (€ 28,-)

                                 + steel engraved maps of 2 hemispheres, Australia (!), Europe, Russia in Europe north part, idem south part

                                 + large fold-out (60x60 cm) Political Scale of the Globe, or an Attempt to Exhibit the General Statistics of the Earth according to its Actual Political

                                    Divisions, and the More Recent Discoveries (population, surface, revenue, debt, army, religion, language, reigning sovereign, principal towns, capitals

             Vol II Part I, (James Bell),1839 (Switzerland, Holland, East Flanders, Belgium, France, Spain), (EUR 34)

 

             1861 (6 volumes, without volume 2), with steel-engraved maps by W. Hughes, published by A&C Black, Edinburgh.

             With bookseller's sticker on the inside of front cover: "Philip, Son & Nephew, Booksellers & Stationers, 51 South Castle St. Liverpool".

             First published as the Glasgow System of Geography in 1812 (2 vols).

             Afterwards edited by James Bell in 5 volumes in 1815, and in 6 volumes since 1824, republished throughout the 19th century (at least until 1882).

             The 1861 edition was simultaneously  printed in the United States (in the first year of the American Civil War) and in translation in France.

             This edition also contains a new set of maps, "carefully coloured" (which is a "new feature") and "a number of views of important and interesting

             localities" (i.e. steel-engravings, many by W. Hughes ). Volume 1 contains a "Prospectus" (voorwoord), and Volume 6 has an Index.

             Volume 1: Northern Europe

             with large map of Europe (by G.H. Swanston, black/white), map of Russia & Poland (colour),

             map of Sweden, Norway & Denmark, map of Austrian Empire, map of Prussia & Western Germany,

             engraving of Interlachen (by N. Finden)

             Volume 2: missing (Southern Europe)

             Volume 3: British Kingdom & Africa

             with large map of England (by J & C Walker, b/w, 30x40 cm),

             large map of Scotland (by G.H. Swanston, colour), railways, Wall of Antoninus, districts formerly possessed by clans (Stewarts, MacDonalds, etc.)

             map of Ireland (by W. Hughes) , map of Lower Egypt (by G.H. Swanston), map of Coast & Environs of Alexandria, Ruined Temples at Philae (engraved by E. Finden)      

             Volume 4: African islands & Western Asia (Part I)

             map of Asia, map of Turkey in Asia, Georgia & part of Persia,

             engravings of Ephesus (by E. Finden), Smyrna (by E. Finden), Rhodes (by S. Fisher), Great Wall of China

             Volume 5: Southern Asia & North America

             with map of North America + map of USA, small palns of 6 main cities, engraving of New York Bay (by J.T. Smyth)

             Volume 6: Central & South America & Australia

             with map of world rivers and mountains, a map of the West Indies, a map of South America, and a map of Australia

             new info on "projects for connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean" (under Guatamala),   and the "progress of discovery" in Australia

Black's General Atlas of the World

        Black's General Atlas of the World started with other cartographers in 1840 and existed for about 60 years (a late edition appeared in 1898).

        The maps were mounted on central gussets ("mounted on guards").

Black's General Atlas of the World, 1840

        1840 (1st edition, by Sidney Hall, 54 maps, with tissue guards, € 242 / £198);

        maps 1-5 by Geo. Aikman; map 20 (Germany) by J. Brown; plate 4 has hand-coloured mountains & rivers

        In 1840, Sidney Hall made steel-engraved maps on the basis of the process invented by Jacob Perkins (1766 - 1849), zie wikipedia link.

        The hardness of the printing plates invented by Perkins enabled engravers to achieve much greater density of detail without loss of clarity.

        (N.B. Mariana Starke stelde in 1822 al aan uitgever John Murray voor om het Perkins-procedé voor haar kaart met de postwegen van Europa te gebruiken)

        Special feautures of the 1st edition of 1840:

        Map 19: the Netherlands is "now divided into Holland and Belgium "

                       from the Introduction, page 6: "The Dutch still claim the islands of Oruba and Ourubilla, that of Bonaire, or Buenos Ayres,

                      all of the northern coast of South America. These, however, have few or no resident inhabitants, but a few persons occasionally

                     resort to them to take turtles, or to collect salt"

        Map 20: an index map of Germany with posthouses

        Map 23: Austrian Dominions: a union of different countires, 15 governments (see Introduction)

        Maps 31 & 32: Italy consists of nine sovereign states, one of which is part of the Austrian Empire & the others are politically subject to Austria

        Maps 33 & 36: Turkey in Europe & Asia: diminished Ottoman Empire, still includes the entire Balkan, Iraq, Syria, yet without Greece

        Map 34: Hindustan "with part of Caubul"

        Map 41: New Holland or Australia (as it is now called in Britain, see Introduction)

        Map 42: Africa:major part is still described as "undiscovered country"

        Map 44: Africa, South Part, the present-day Orange Free State is described as "country lately taken possession of by colonial farmers"

        Map 45: North America; without today's California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah (all belonging to Mexico), while Texas is an independent

        Maps 46 & 47: United States: 26 states, 3 territories, 1 district (Iowa and Wisconsin was then only settled by squatters)

                                  Texas had become an independent Republic in 1835, under President (General) Samuel Houston (see Introduction)

        Map 53: South America since the revolutions after Spain was defeated by France in 1808; Argentina is called La Plata (without Patagonia)

Black's General Atlas of the World, 1860 (2nd Bartholomew edition since 1856, €160 / £130 inclusive),

        with small bookplate of previous owner: "W. Ireland, Trinity College Cambridge", from a limited gilt-edged edition, No. 350

        The 1860 edition had lithographic prints by Fr. Schenk, Edinburgh, they were engraved by Sidney Hall, William Hughes and (newly) by John Bartholomew,

        a number of maps were "printed in colours by W.H. McFarlane", others by Fr. Schenk , Edinburgh;

        Some of the maps were "drawn by J. Bartholomew Jr."

   

Bartholomew, Black's Handy Atlas of England and Wales, 1892 (since 1890)

Cary's Traveller's Companion (counties of England and Wales), 1790, 1st ed. (!), copper engraved, hand colouring, (GBP 310, € 370 inc.)

Colton, G. W., General Atlas, 1857 (100 steel plate engraved, 170 maps, mounted on central gusset,

               imperial folio (elephant size, 17.5" x 15"), 1st ed., $451,- inclusive, € 346,-)

Colton & Fitch's Modern School Geography, George W. Fitch, with maps 'on a new and uniform scale' by G.W. Colton, Boston, 1857 ($39 / € 30,- incl.)

Cruchley's Reduced Ordnance Map of London (Cruchley's Railway and Commercial Map of London), with Index, circa 1867-1868 (€ 12,-)

                   reference to contsruction of New Street (to the Mansion House), Holborn Valley Improvements, Metropolitan Meat Market, Thames Embankment,

                  Thames Tunnel (between Wapping and Rotherithe, "it has now been purchased by the East London Railway Company")

                   Holborn Theatre (built in 1866, "has lately been opened under the spirited management of Mr. Parry")

                   De Metropolitan Meat Market werd geopend in 1868

Dodsley, J. (publisher), The Preceptor: Containing A General Course of Education, vol. 1, 1775, 6th ed. (€63,-) 27 plates (out of 29), frontispiece

                      including 6 maps by Emanuel Bowen of 1747 with contemporary hand-coloured outline,

                      first published in 1748, 2nd edition in 1754, 3rd in 1758, 4th in 1763, 5th in 1769, 6th in 1775

                     contents: Dedication to Prince George (i.e. the future King George II), by R. Dodsley, 1748 (pp. iii-vii), Preface (pp. ix - xxxi);

                     I Reading/Speaking/Writing/Letters (pp.1-109);

                     II Arithmetic/Geometry/Architecture (pp.109-186+ 7 plates)

                      III Geography & Astronomy (pp.187-286+ 9 plates),

                      IV Chronology & History (pp. 287-352)

                       V Rhetoric & Poetry (pp. 353-396),

                      VI Drawing (pp. 397-414 + 13 out of 15 plates): kaart No. 2 ontbreekt, evenals afbeeldingen 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

                      volume 1, 1769, 5th ed. (€ 19,-); in deze editie is de World map ingebonden tegenover pagina 155, zoals oorsrponkelijk stond aangegeven

                                                                  de afbeelding van de "solar system with the orbits of 5 remarkable comets" is ingebonden tegenover pagina 313

                                                                  achterin het boek is kaart No. 3 met zoogdieren ("Drawing") voor groot deel afwezig, afbeeldingen 10, 11, 12, 13, (14, 15) ontbreken

                      volume 2, 1769, 5th ed. (€ 60,-); contents: VII Logic (pp.1-194), VIII Natural History (pp. 195-238, including 5 plates), IX Ehtics & Morality (pp.239-380),

                      X Trade & Commerce (pp. 381-464), XI Laws & Government (pp. 465-514), XII Human Life & Manners (pp. 515-560),

                      including The Vision of Theodore, a moral alegory written by Samuel Johnson in 1748, pp. 520 ff.;

In The Preceptor (1775) wordt onder andere uitleg gegeven bij de problematiek van de nul-meridiaan op oude kaarten, destijds "the first meridian" of  "prime meridian" genaamd:
"The first meridian in the old maps was placed either at Teneriff, one of the Canary Isles, 17 degrees west of London, or at Ferro, another of the Canary Isles, 19 degrees west of London. But every nation almost at this day places the first meridian at their respective capital cities, in their respective maps. In Moll's, which are the corectest English maps we have, London is made the first meridian at one end of the map, and Ferro at the other (...). And in these maps the upper end is always the north, the lower end the south." (p. 190)

N.B. In 1884 werd tijdens de Internationale Mediaanconferentie in Washington D.C. afgesproken dat de nulmeridiaan door Greenwich zou lopen (link).

Ewing, Thomas, New and General World Atlas + A System of Geography (15th ed. ±1839, steel plate marks) (€ 110 + € 30,- incl.),

           maps mounted on central gusset

Johnson's Family Atlas of the World, 1866 ($ 815, incl. postage, excl. VAT), maps mounted on central gusset (i.e. central paper strip)

Miege, Guy, The Present State of Great Britain and Ireland, 3rd edition, 1716 (€42,-), with frontispiece of King George I, first published in 1707

                with 2 fold-out maps by Herman Moll (1654? -1732), "the foremost map publisher after the turn of the century":

                (1) Great Britain & Ireland, (2) Dominion of the King of Great Britain in Germany, (3) the Brunswick Genealogy

Johnston, Keith, A School Atlas of General and Descriptive Geography, 1872 (post Franco-German war), EUR 30 incl., litho colour, central gusset

Mitchell's New General Atlas, 1878 (USD 410 + 25 + 30 douane = € 340,-), publ. by S.A. Mitchell jr., Philadelphia, maps mounted on central gusset

Monteith's Comprehensive Geography, New England edition, school atlas of United States, Canada, world (incl. Netherlands)

                published by A.S. Barnes and Company, 1872, engravings, 104 pages + Supplement, 1878, 30 pages (USD 61 + postage)

Morse, Jedidiah, American Universal Geography, Vol. 2, 1796 (2e ed., € 145,-), 1805 (vol. 1, € 80,-), 1812 (Volumes 1&2,  € 50,-)

Morse's School Geography + Atlas, 1828 (Geography: USD 44 = € 30, Atlas: USD 134 + 26 + custom: € 124,-)

Rand McNally, Dollar Atlas of the United States & Canada, 1884 (1e ed. € 42)

Rand McNally & Co's New Pocket Atlas, Unites States, Canada, World, 1893 (€ 27,-)

Rand McNally, Ideal Atlas of the World, 1916  (USD 16,-/40,- = € 36,- incl.)

       

survey of British/American Atlases / maps (link) :

Christopher Saxton (ca. 1543 - ca. 1610)

                   Atlas of England and Wales (1579); a new  national survey of lands was commissioned with royal encouragement,

                   after the redistribution of monastic lands (see "Antique Maps"); it became the basis for all county maps until the mid-18th century;

                   Edities uit 1689-1693 bevatten aangepaste kaarten van Philip Lea, die later ook in de edities van George Willdey (ca. 1730) werden gebruikt;

                   Thomas Jefferys gaf in 1749 The Shires of England & Wales uit, een herziening van Saxton's An Atlas of England & Wales;

                   Circa 1770 publiceerden C. Dicey & Co. de laatste uitgave van deze Atlas.

   

William Camden (1551-1623, link)

                   Britannia (1586 - 1607)

                   een county-by-county beschrijving van Groot-Brittannië en Ierland, in het Latijn uitgegeven in 1586, met vele herdrukken,

                   in 1607 voorzien van 57 county maps van Christopher Saxton;

                   deze Latijnse uitgave als basis voor de in 1617 & 1639 door Willem Janszn Blaeu in Amsterdam uitgegeven editie onder redactie van Reinier Telle,

                   later vertaald in het Engels door Philemon Holland in 1610 (een latere editie verscheen in 1639), en opnieuw vertaald in 1695 door Edmund Gibson,

                   met county maps van Robert Morden (latere edities verschenen in 1722, 1753, 1772);

                   in 1789 editie in 4 delen, met kaarten van John Cary, en onder redactie van Richard Gough, ontdekker van de beroemde 14e-eeuwse Gough-map),

                   heruitgave in 1806.

                   Het werk was in heel Europa populair, met onder meer uitgaves in Amsterdam (1617 en heruitgave in 1639, W.J. Blaeu) en Frankfurt (1616).

John Norden (1548 - 1626)

                   England: an Intended Guyde for English Travailers (1625)

                   eerste gebruik van de driehoekige afstandstabellen

               

John Speed (1552-1629)

                   Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, first published in 1611, and many times republished until 1770.

                   De kaarten van John Speed, met gedetailleerde stadsplattegronden en beschrijvingen vervingen de atlassen van Christopher Saxton

                   Hij was weliswaar geïnspireerd door de kaarten van Saxton & Norden, maar voegde er veel eigen informatie aan toe.

                   Onder Koningin Elisabeth I was reizen populairder geworden als gevolg van overzeese handel, en binnenlandse verbindingen met havensteden.

                   Itinerarium Anglae

John Ogilby (1600-1676)

                   Britannia - a Geographical and Historical Description of the Principal Roads thereof" (link) in 1675; "strip maps" met alle belangrijke postwegen

                   Ogilby gebruikte als eerste de standaardmijl van 1760 yards. Hoewel de "statute mile" al in 1595 was ingevoerd, werden tot

                   dan toe in de praktijk nog steeds de traditionele "long", "middle" en "short" mijl gebruikt, wat tot veel verwarring leidde.

                   De in 1719 verschenen Pocket Guide for the English Traveller van Thomas Gardner was een verkorte versie van Ogilby's Itinerarium Anglae

Justus Danckerts (1635 -1701)

Atlas, (1680 -1700), the maps "are now very rare", "the maps are undated"

"The Dankerts family (...) were prominent print and map sellers active in Amsterdam fior nearly a century. (...) Their stock of plates was acquired by R & J. Otten".

(from: Antiques Maps, by Moreland & Bannister)

"Accuratissima Germaniae Tabula a Iusto Danckerts Amstelodami cum Privilegio", circa 1680 (€ 44, Oct. 2012)

N.B. De 0-meridiaan liep op de kaart van Danckerts door het eiland Ferro, een van de Canarische Eilanden.

De meest linkse meridiaan op deze kaart loopt over de oostpunt van Engeland (Londen/Greenwich lag op ongeveer 19 graden ten oosten van de 0-meridiaan)

Op de kaart is te zien dat Amsterdam op ongeveer de 24e meridiaan lag.

De Waddeneilandjes Bosch, Grint, en Eijerland (ten noorden van Texel) zijn nog afgebeeld, evenals de voormalige Zuiderzeeeilandjes.

 

Edward Hatton

A New View of London (1708), met kaart van Londen, AD 1707

 

Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733)

Publiceerde talrijke kaarten in zijn 28 delige verzameling van Zee- en Land-Reysen. De kaarten en de verhalen waren overgenomen van andere auteurs en kartografen.

Bij het in 1706 gepubliceerde boek met o.a. de "Voyagie van Capiteyn William Hawkins ... Gdeaan Anno 1608" (ontleend aan de Engelse versie van Samuel Purchas een eeuw eerder) behoort een vroege kaart van het Indisch subcontinent, van het toenmalige Perzische Rijk in het westen tot aan de Ganges Delta in het oosten (het huidige Bangladesh). En bij het uit het Frans vertaalde reisverhaal van P. Marquette over de "Ontdekking van eenige Landen en Volkeren, in 't Noorder-Gedeelte van America. Gedaan in het jaar 1673" behoort een vroege kaart van de Mississippi Rivier vanaf de Golf van Mexico tot aan het land van de Iroquisen in het noorden, met Louisiana en Florida. De Golf van Mexico ligt aan de rechterkant op de kaart, en in plaats van het noorden is het oosten aan de bovenkant getekend.

 

 

Moll, Herman (1654? -1732), "the foremost map publisher after the turn of the century" (link)

                He was well acquainted with William Dampier, Daniel Defoe, and Jonathan Swift (who refers to Moll in Gulliver's Travels, Ch. 4, Part 11)

                Atlas Geographus: Or, a Compleat System of Geography, Ancient and Modern, Containing What is of Most Use in Bleau, Valerius, Cellarius, Cluverius, Baudrand, Britius,

                Sausan, &c., with the Discoveries and Improvements of the Best Modern Authors to this Time. Illustrated with about 100 New Maps, Done with the Latest Observations,

                by Herman Moll, Geographer; and Many Other Cuts by the Best Artists. 5 Volumes, I & II Europe, III Asia, IV Africa, V America (including Australia), 1701,

                His maps were also published in:

                Guy Miege's The Present State of Great Britain and Ireland, 1st edition 1707: (2 maps: Great Britain & Ireland; Dominion of the King of Great Britain in Germany)

                Samuel Simpson's The Agreeable Historian, Or: The Compleat English Traveller, 1746, "with a map of every county after the designs of Herman Moll and others"

                Daniel Defoe's ( & Samuel Richardson's) A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain: Divided Into Circuits or Journies. 4 volumes. (maps included from 1761)

                John Chamberlayne's Present State of Great Britain and Ireland, 3rd ed. 1716, kaartjes van Groot-Brittannië, en Hannover ("His Majesty's Dominions in Germany")

                Thomas Salmon, Modern History and Present State of All Nations, many volumes,

                                        from the title page of vol. IV, third part of the Present State of Europe, 1734:

                                        "Illustrated  (...) with maps of the several countries described in this Volume, accurately drawn, according to the Geographical Part of this Work:

                                        by Herman Moll"

                                        1. map of Spain & Portugal, 1731 (p.1),

                                        2. map of Portugal, 1731, p. 131,

                                        3. A General Map of Great Britain and Ireland, with part of Germany, Holland, Flanders, France &c, 1731, p. 197

                De Blainville's Travels through Holland, Germany, Switzerland, but especially Italy, 1743, republished in 1757, 3 volumes, maps by "Herman Moll Geographer"

                                          4 maps at the rear of Vol.3 (edited by Mr. Turnbull): Germany, Switzerland, United Provinces, Northern Italy

Ook op deze kaart van Hermann Moll (uit De Blainville) loopt de 24 meridiaan door het midden van Nederland, en de nul-meridiaan

lag dus over het Canarische eiland Ferro (zie de toelichting in The Preceptor, boven).

 

Emanuel Bowen (1694? - 1767), who had Thomas Jefferys and Thomas Kitchin as apprentices, and whose son Thomas succeeded him (link)

                  "Eman. Bowen" supplied maps for Harris' Complete Collection of Voyages,

                 as well as six maps, dated 1747, for Dodsley, J. (publisher), The Preceptor: Containing A General Course of Education

                 Samen met John Owen gaf hij in 1720 Britannia Depicta or Ogilby improved uit, met een verzameling 'strip maps'.

Sample pages from Brtitannia Depicta, pp. 71 - 74, route from London to Portsmouth

John Rocque (approx. 1704 - 1762)

                  An Exact Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1746 (reissued in 1747, 1748, 1751, 1769)

                  De Hedendaagsche Historie, of Tegenwoordige Staat van Groot-Brittannië, uitgegeven in 2 delen, in 1754, door Isaac Tirion,

                  bevat een kaart van Londen en omgeving ("ruiim een uur gaans rondsom dezelve stad") gebaseerd op "de kaart van John Roque",

                  met een index van de voornaamste straten, pleinen, markten, publieke gebouwen, etc.

                  De schaalverdeling is in Engelsche mijlen en Rijnlandse roeden (1500 Rijnlandse roeden = 1 uur gaans)

 

Thomas Jefferys (1695 - 1771)

                  The Shires of England & Wales (1749, heruitgave van Saxton's An Atlas of England & Wales)

                  Small English Atlas, 1749 (samen met Thomas Kitchin)

                  American Atlas, 1775-1782, 48 copperplate engravings

               

Thomas Kitchin (1718 - 1784)

                  Small English Atlas, 1749 (met Thomas Jefferys)

                   The Large English Atlas, 1755 - 1760

                   Royal English Atlas, 1762

                   General Atlas, 1770--1788, 44 copper plate engravings

                   New Universal Atlas, 1795, 66 maps  

 

Aaron Arrowsmith (1750 - 1823)

                      (+ S. Lewis): New & Elegant General Atlas, 1804-1819 (1819 edition to accompany new Improved edition of Morse's Geography)

                      The Cyclopaedia, 1806, 61 maps

                      New General Atlas, 1817, 53 maps

John Cary ( ca. 1754 - 1835)

              Traveller's Companion (counties of England and Wales), 1790-1728, de eerste nieuwe inventarisatie van postwegen in Engeland en Wales sinds John Ogilby

              New Universal Atlas, 1808-1824, 56 maps (na de Conferentie van Wenen in 1815 nieuwe grenzen in Midden Europa)

Sidney Hall (1788 - 1831, link)

A Travelling County Atlas, with all the coach and railroads, 1845, large octavo, coloured maps, black leather envelope cover

Hall was also the engraver of maps and plates in i.a Reichard's Itinerary of Germany, published by Samuel Leigh in several editions in the early 19th century, e.g. in 1818

Zie ook: overzichtskaart in A Tour through, Holland, Belgium, along the Rhine, and through the North of France in the Summer of 1816, van James Mitchell, 2nd ed., 1819

J. Pinkerton: Modern Atlas, 1815, 60 maps

C. Smith: New General Atlas, 1816 (na de Conferentie van Wenen in 1815 nieuwe grenzen in Midden Europa)

W. Guthrie: General Atlas, 1820, 22 maps (for: Guthrie's Geography)

F. Lucas: General Atlas, 1823, 100 color maps, many American

J. Morse (+S.E. Morse): Modern Atlas, 1822-1828

                                            New Universal Atlas, 1822

S.E. Morse (+ S. Breese): New Universal Atlas of the World, 1825, 30 maps

                                               Cerographic Atlas of the United States, 1848

                                               Morse's North American Atlas, 1842-(1845)

H.C. Carey & I. Lea: Complete Historical, Chronological and Geographical American Atlas, 1822-1827

                                     Family Cabinet Atlas, 1832-1834, 48 maps

Malte-Brun: Universal Geography, 1828

A. Finley: New General Atlas, 1824 (60 copper plates by Young & Delekker), then annually 1826-1834 with added plates,

    many American (e.g. in 1829: Western + Eastern hemisphere, Mercator world projection, North America, Canada, USA,

    23 separate pp of states/territories, incl. Indiana, Illinois, Misssissippi, Louisiana, Missouri, 2 pages of NY, 2 pp Pennsylvania?, no Florida,

    Mexico, W-Indies, South America,

    Europe, Scandinavia, Russia, Holland, Netherl, Britain, Scotl, Ireland, Germany, Prussia, Austria, France, Switzerl, Iberia, Italy, Greece, Turkey,

    Asia, Russia in Asia, Turkey in Asia, Hindoostan, China, Palestine

    Africa, Egypt, pp. with mountains, rivers, statistical table at front), format: approx 35x 27 cm

               Atlas Classica, 1829 (10-11 plates)

               New American Atlas, 15 plates, 1826, reprinted in 1831 by S.A. Mitchell

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1829-1835

D.H. Burr, New Universal Atlas, 1835, 63 maps

T.G. Bradford (+ S.G. Goodrich): A Comprehensive Atlas, 1835, 66 maps (also American)

                                                         Universal Illustrated Atlas, 1842, 49 maps

H.C. Tanner: Atlas of the United States, 1835

                       New Universal Atlas, 1836-1843 (sold to S.A. Mitchell in 1846)

S.A. Mitchell: A New American Atlas, 1831, a reprint of Finley's atlas of 1826, with added decorative border

                         "Although Mitchell's first cartographic publication was the 1831 New American Atlas,

                         he seems to have focused his major attention on maps during the succeeding years."

                         New Universal Atlas, 1846-1859, 117 maps and more,

                         " In 1845 Mitchell acquired the copyright for Tanner's New Universal Atlas from Carey & Hart,

                         which had previously purchased the copyright from Tanner and had published the atlas in 1843 and 1844." (Ristow)

                        copyright from H.C. Tanner 1846, but plates were subsequently updated

                         decorative borders with manually applied green coloring;

                         copyright sold to Cowperthwait/DeSilver/Thomas in 1850;

                         after 1849 the border color "appears to have been printed by chromolithography, although the color on the actual maps was still manually applied"

                         steel-plate engravings probably transferred to lithographic stones (the plate marks of the Tanner/ Carey & Hart period have disappeared);

                         beautifully colored title-page engraving of  "the First Landing of Columbus in the New World",

                        as well as a beautifully colored engraving of mountain-heights and river-lengths;

                        even the text on the title page and on the list of contents has been printed in red and blue colors;

                         very bright colors (as seen in an 1854 edition)

                         copyright sold to DeSilver/Butler in 1857;

                         colors on the maps are softer (pastel-tinted), as is characteristic of the later Mitchell atlases;

                         the border color seems to have disappeared (as seen in an 1857 edition), as has the coloring on the title page and mountain-river-page

                         New General Atlas, 1860-1887 (47 to 53 quarto maps, revised until 1887),

                         published by S.A. Mitchell jr., and from 1880 by W.M Bradley & co.

                        in a slightly smaller format than the Universal Atlas

                        all editions reproduced by lithography, but the maps still have manual coloring

                        decorative borders, but no longer with green coloring

                        Mitchell's Family Atlas of the World, Subscription Edition: this was a different name under which the New General Atlas was published in 1893,

                        by the A.R. Keller Company, 93 map plates + 162 pages of description and statistics

                         New Atlas of America, 1874

                         New Reference Atlas, 1865, 56 copper-plate maps

                         Mitchell's School Atlas, 1838-1886 to accompany the geography books, see below  ("This is the most widely used school atlas of the 19th century")

G.W. Colton: the Coltons (respectively father J.H. and son G.W.) entered the atlas-making business relatively late:

                        Colton's Atlas of the World, 1855/56-, 1857, 2 editions

                         each edition consisting of 2 volumes, one of which only dedicated to the Americas, 58 maps,

                        Ristow: "[the maps exhibit] no plate marks, so the engraved maps were probably transferred to lithographic stones.

                        Color was manually applied. "

  

                      Colton's General Atlas, published 1857-1888, number of steel-plate engravings: 170 (in 1857) 180 (by 1866) to 202 (in 1876-1888)

                        in 1860 its copyright was sold to A.J. Johnson

                        from 1857 temporarily no decorative borders (decorative borders reappear in the 1860 atlas),

                        from 1874 no longer called "steel-engraved": so possibly lithography after 1874

                        From Walter Ristow's American Maps and Mapmakers (1985):

                       "[The Atlas of the World] was replaced in 1857 by Colton's General Atlas in one volume.

                       The title page describes the atlas as 'containing One Hundred and Seventy Steel Plate Maps and Plans,

                       on One Hundred Imperial Sheets.'

                       This suggests that the General atlas may have been introduced because this type of reproduction had become available.

                       The publisher's advertisement still states that the maps were engraved,

                       but it is not clear whether the maps were engraved on steel or

                       whether they were transferred from copper to steel plates. The latter is more likely.

                       Around 1857 a technique of enfacing copper with steel was invented.

                       It allowed the engraver to work his image on a soft copper plate,

                       upon completion of which the copper plate was coated with a more durable steel surface by means of electroplating.

                       G. Woolworth Colton is given as the author of the atlas.

                       Colton had obviously stopped using his first full name in favor of the more distinguished sounding G. Woolworth.

                       Most of the maps in the General Atlas duplicate those published earlier in the Atlas of the World.

                       In fact, the original 1855 copyright registration appear on most of them.

                       In order to fit the maps onto a smaller page, however,

                        the maps in early editions of the General Atlas do not have decorative borders.

                       The borders were reinstated beginning with the 1860 edition.

                       Like its predecessor, the General Atlas includes extensive text and statistical data by [ Richard Swainson] Fisher [M.D.].

                       [Fisher also wrote for many of the Colton gazetteers and historical and geographical books and guides] .

                       The General Atlas apparently proved to be a popular publication,

                       and it was reissued in revised editons to 1888 [from 1860 alongside Johnson's Family Atlas]."

                       Atlas of America, 1864

J.H. Colton: Colton's Quarto Atlas of the World, 1865, 50 copper-plate maps

C.W. Morse: Morse's General Atlas of the World, 1856, 70 maps

                       Diamond Atlas, 1857

A.J. Johnson: New illustrated Family Atlas, 1860-1885

                      59 color maps (many maps bought from J.H. Colton, new maps in 1866 edition,

                      probably lithography is used instead of steel engraving: the 1864 edition refers to maps being "transferred and printed',

                      from steel engravings to lithographic stones or zinc plates),

                      the paper quality of the 1866 edition seems to be slightly inferior to that of the other editions.

J. Bartholomew: Black's Atlas of North America, 1856, 20 maps

                               Black's General Atlas of the World, 1858-1867 (American Supplement)

                               Philip's Handy General Atlas of America, 1879, 23 color maps

C.G. Colby: Diamond Atlas, 1857

                     World in Miniature, 1861

G.H. Swanston: Companion Atlas to the Gazetteer of the World, 1860, 43 color maps

Appleton's General Atlas of the World, 1872, 33 maps

Asher & Adams: New (Commercial, Topographical and Statistical Atlas) of the United States, 1872-1874

O.W. Gray: Atlas of the United States, 1873-1876

                    Atlas of the World, 1876

                    National Atlas, 1875-1882

                   Gray's Atlas of the United States with general maps of the world, 1876

G.F. Cram: Cram's Illustrated Family Atlas of the World, 1882 (327 pages)

                     Illustrated Atlas, 1885

                    Cram's Unrivaled Family Atlas of the World, 1883 (132 pages)

                    Unrivaled Atlas, 1887

                    Standard American Atlas, 1887-1889

                   etc.

Rand, McNally: Business Atlas, 1876-1880

                            New Family Atlas, 1888-1891

                            General Atlas, 1887-1905

                            Indexed Atlas (of the World), 1881-1907 (904 pages, 70 maps)

                            New Indexed Atlas, 1886-1894

                            New Indexed Business Atlas, 1881-1884

                            Improved Indexed Business Atlas, 1881-1888

                            Enlarged Business Atlas, 1889-1909, etc.

                            New Dollar Atlas of the United States and Canada, 1884

                           Family Atlas of the United States, 1892

                           Universal atlas, 1892-1901

                           Twentieth Century Atlas, 1896

                            New Standard Atlas, 1890-1899

                           New General Atlas, 1895

                           Library Atlas, 1894-1895

                          Household Atlas, 1898

                          etc.

N.B.

- until approx. 1830: mainly copperplate engraving in mapmaking (limited editions, expensive); after that it is occasionally used,

e.g. until the 1846 editions of Mitchell's New Universal Atlas, on which plate marks are visible:

probably the copper plate engravings were transferred to lithographic stones for the 1846 Atlas.

- steel-engravings (also plate marks visible on the maps) often replaced copper engravings after about 1830;

used e.g. in S.A. Mitchell's Travellers Guide through the United States (from 1832);

the technique had been used for printing banknotes (less easy to duplicate by forgers, more durable than copper plates);

there is no evidence of steel plates for American maps before 1830 (in England it was used earlier, e.g by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge;

a well-known name was Jacob Perkins (1766-1849, zie wikipedia link) to whom Mariana Starke refers in one of her letters in the early 1820s; according to Ristow.

- lithographic stones had become usual in Europe by 1820 (clear and attractive maps, additions and corrections could easily be made on the stones)

- in American mapmaking, lithography appears later, e.g. in Mitchell's Traveller's Guide of 1832, and in Mitchell's atlases from 1846

- cerography (wax-engraving, which was cheaper and less high-quality) is extensively used in American mapmaking in the 1870s and 1880s,

but not by Colton and Mitchell, who had used steel engravings and lithographic plates throughout the second half of the 19th century (until 1892 when Colton's firm expired)

- decorative borders appear on many American maps after 1830 (possibly using a technique invented at about 1820, intended as anti-forgery feature for use on banknotes

- color is often applied manually on the expensive atlases; mechanical coloring of map borders by chromolithography is used e.g. after 1849 in Mitchell's New Universal Atlas

copper-plate engraving: from mid 15th century (first maps in 1477, Ptolemy's Geographia, Bologna edition, popular in the U.S.A. until about 1830

(volgens Teenstra's Kronijk, werd het kopergraveren in 1425 uitgevonden, in 1440 verder verbeterd in Colmar, en in 1460 te Florence)

steel-plate engraving: old method, more durable than copper, but difficult to engrave due to hardness of material;

from 1804, Perkins discovered a process whereby steel plates became suitable for engraving:

popular for printing banknotes, and was briefly applied after 1830 to map-printing, e.g. by Mitchell and Colton.

lithography: invented in 1796, became popular in Europe by 1820, printing from stone or, e.g., zinc plates with grease crayon or ink, etc.

cerographic engraving: wax-engraving, first applied in America in 1840, at printing house of William Sharp,

invented by Sidney E. Morse, aptented in 1848, popular in cartography during 1870s and 1880s,

notably by Rand McNally & Co in the very detailed railway maps, as well as other maps (Rand McNally also used electrotyping andmechanical coloring).

chromolithography coloring: first applied in the U.S. by William Sharp in 1840, to replace hand-coloring mainly for illustrations,

e.g. borders of maps and title page of atlases, while the detailed hand-coloring remained done by hand.

The technique used for coloring maps mechanically was invented/perfected by Charles H. Waite (who worked for Rand McNally since the 1870s).

 

Timelines:

North America

U.S.A.

1607: Virginia start at Jamestown and later covers the territory between the 34th and 45th northern parallels; it became a crown colony in 1634;

           Kentucky and the North West Territory were ceded to the U.S. in 1783.

1620: the Province of Massachusetts Bay included today's Massachusset,s parts of New Hampshire (until 1679), Vermont (until 1741) & Maine (until 1820)

1614-1664 Nieuw Nederland / Nieuw Amsterdam, the colony covering today's New York; it also included New Jersey since 1627 until 1664,

            in which year New York and New Jersey received separate Royal Charters

1634: Maryland (a northern part of Virginia) became a Crown Colony and got its own Royal Charter in 1688

1635: Connecticut, founded by settlers from Massachussets; it comprised  "the Commonwealth of New Haven"

           and the colony of Connecticut (aka Hartford), and adopted a charter stating its independent status and received a Royal Charter in 1662

1636: Rhode Island received its Royal Charter. The colony was founded by settlers from Massachusetts

1638: New Sweden (today's Delaware, first settled by the Dutch in 1609),

            became part of New York in 1664, then of Pennsylvania in 1682, and a seperate territory in 1775

1663: Carolina (today's North and South Carolina + Tennessee + all lands west of it) received a Royal Charter;

            it remained united until 1729 although there had been separate governments since 1690;

            and the name of South Carolina first appeard in 1696 (See King's Handbook of the United States)

1664: New York & New Jersey established as a crown colony from Nieuw Amsterdam/ Nieuw Holland

1681: Pennsylvania received Royal Charter for land north of Maryland, and west of Delaware River,

           added to by lands bought from New Jersey, and subsequently, from 1682 to 1784 expanded by purchases from Indians

1729: North Carolina (first called Albemarle) separated from South Carolina; it included today's Tennessee until 1790

1732: Georgia is founded as the 13th and last British colony in North America and included today's states of Alabama and Mississippi until 1798

            (then called Mississippi Territory)

1758: Britten veroverden Louisburg op Frankrijk, en veroverden vervolgens geheel Nieuw Frankrijk tijdens de Zevenjarige Oorlog (1756-1763)

1775: Delaware Territory (it was previously part of Pennsylvania, but had had its own assembly since 1702)

1776-1783: War of Independence (see external link), 13 states:

           New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,

           Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia;

           Under the Treaty of Versailles, the territory between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi was ceded to the United States

           (this area had been ceded by France to Britain in 1763);

           Canada, the American North-West , and Nova Scotia remained British

           many pro-British loyalists flee to Canada

1783: Kentucky and the North West Territory were ceded by Virginia to the U.S.; Kentucky had been a county of Virginia since 1776 and became a state in 1792;

           the North-West Territory covered the area between Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi,

           comprising today's Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota

1790: Tennessee is ceded by North Carolina as a Territory

1790-1800: Philadelphia is the temporary capital city of the United States (until the completion of the new city of Washington D.C., west of Georgetown)

1792: Kentucky state

1796: Tennessee state

1798: Mississippi Territory, previously part of Georgia , comprising today's Alabama and Mississippi

1800: Ohio Territory (included today's Ohio + eastern Michigan) + Indiana Territory

            (including all of the area remaining of the North West Territory east of the Mississippi)

1803: Louisiana purchase (including today's Louisiana, Missouri , Arkansas, Iowa, (western) Minnesota,

                                                 North & South Dakota, Nebraska, (most of) Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming)

1803: Ohio state (since 1800: Ohio Territory)

1805: Michigan Territory (see Morse's Atlas)

1810-1812: Western Florida annexed (stretching west to the Mississippi River)

1812: War with France / Napoleon (since 1806 the U.S. had become increasingly caught up in the war between France and Britain; the war ended in 1815)

1812 : Louisiana becomes a state

1816: Indiana state (since 1800: Indiana Territory)

1817: Mississippi state & Alabama Territory (formed out of Mississippi Territory, which had been ceded by Georgia in 1798); it also comprised part of West Florida.

1818: Illinois state (see Morse's Atlas)

1818: Oregon country jointly ruled by U.S. and Britain (= today's Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Wyoming and Montana)

1819: Florida ceded by Spain (at $5 million; it became a U.S. territoty in 1822, and a state in 1845);

           Spain also agrees to a definite border with the U.S. west of the Rockies  along the 42nd parallel;

           Alabama gains statehood; Arkansas becomes a Territory (see Morse's Atlas: Arkansaw Territory)

1820: Maine separated from Massachusetts (since 1691 joined in the Province of Massachusetts Bay).

1821: Missouri state (see Morse's Atlas) (since 1812: Missouri Territory); the Missouri compromise of 1820 determined that,

            north of the 36°.30' parallel up to the 100th meridian, slavery was not permitted, except in Missouri.

1822: Florida Territory

1829: Indian Territory, until 1889 (not separately delineated, but shown as part of Arkansas in Ewing's Atlas, but see Geography 15th ed.?)

1836: Toledo region annexed by Ohio form Michigan

1836: Arkansas state (in Ewing's Atlas it comprises Indian Territory, but check Geography, 15th ed.)

1836: Texas is a separate Republic (not in Ewing's Atlas, but check Geography 15th ed.)

1837: Michigan state (see Ewing's Atlas + Geography, 15th ed.; still called Michigan Territory in Morse's Atlas)

1842: Maine-New Brunswick boundary settled

1845: Florida state

1845: Texas annexed as a state by the U.S.

1846-1848: Mexican War

1846: The boundary between British Columbia and Oregon is fixed at the 49° northern parallel;

           Oregon country annexed by U.S. (comprising today's Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Wyoming and Montana)

1846: Iowa state (still part of Northwest Territory in Ewing's Atlas)

1847: Wisconsin state (still part of Northwest Territory in Ewing's Atlas)

1848: Annexation (from Mexico) of territory north of Gila River (covering today's California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, & half of Wyoming)

1850: expansion of Texas

1850: California state

1850: Utah Territory (including today's Nevada), New Mexico Territory

1853: Gasden Purchase: strip of land south of Gila River was added to New Mexico Territory

1854: Nebraska Territory + Kansas Territory (including the part of today's Colorado that lies east of the Rocky Mountains)

1857: Minnesota state

1859: Oregon state

1861-1865: Civil War

1861: Kansas state

1861: Utah state + Nevada Territory

1861: Dakota Territory (including today's North and South Dakota + Wyoming, see Johnson's Atlas 1866; Mitchell spells "Dacotah")

1863: West Virginia state (remained in the Union during the Civil War)

1863: Arizona Territory + Idaho Territory

1864: Nevada state

1865: Colorado Territory

1867: Nebraska state (since 1854: Nebraska Territory)

1867: Alaska acquired from Russia

1868: Wyoming Territory (not in Johnson's 1866 atlas, but see Mitchell's Atlas 1878)

1869: Central and Union Pacific Railroad is completed (transcontinental railroad from ocean to ocean)

1876: Colorado state (since 1865: Colorado Territory)

1889: North & South Dakota become states (since 1861: Dakota Territory) + Washington state + Montana state

1890: Wyoming state (since 1868: Wyoming Territory, not in Johnson's 1866 atlas, but see Mitchell's Atlas 1878)

1898: Hawaii is acquired

1912: Alaska becomes a Territory

1959: Alaska state + Hawaii state

Canada

1608: Québec ("New France") first settlement

1632 and after: settlements along St Lawrence River ("Canada") and "Acadia" (today's Nova Scotia, New Brunswich and parts of Québec)

1663: "New France" officially declared a royal province

1670 and after: British compete with French fur trading: Hudson Bay Co.

1763: all colonies become British following the Paris peace treaty (after the Anglo-French war, the French ceased to be a direct threat,

            American colonies became less dependent on Britain for their protection, and gradually wanted to become more independent)

1774: southward expansion of the British colony of Quebéc (comprising today's Québec and Ontario) to the Mississippi River and the Ohio River

1783: Treaty of Versailles (after U.S. War of Independence) established

            the boundary with the USA to the east along the St Lawrence River through the Great Lakes and westward to the Lake of the Woods

            (in 1817 the boundary is extended west along the 49° parallel up to the Rocky Mountains, and in 1846 up to the Pacific)

1791: the British government passes the "Canada Act" by which the old province of Québec is divided into

           "Upper Canada" (= today's Ontario) and "Lower Canada" (= today's Québec);

            these names, or the term "the Canadas", are used until 1841

            (e.g. in Jedidiah Morse's New Universal Atlas of 1822 there is a map of  "the two Canadas and adjoining British Provinces",

            and in Ewing's New General Atlas of 1839 the North-America map refers to "Upper Canada, Lower Canada, and the British Possessions"

            and on the United States map the area north of it is designated as simply "Canada");

            large-scale migration to "Upper Canada" of British Loyalists from the USA following the U.S. War of Independence;

            Canada becomes a predominantly English-speaking country;

            from 1793 the eastern townships of Quebéc were formed by the new English-speaking settlers

1818: boundary between the USA and Canada is fixed at the 49-degree northern parallel (Rush-Baggot Agreement)

1841: Upper Canada and Lower Canada are united in the British colony of "Canada": one government

1842: boundary between New Brunswick and Maine is settled (Webster-Ashburton Treaty)

1846: boundary between British Columbia and Oregon is fixed at the 49° northern parallel

1849: Vancouver Island becomes a Crown colony

1863: first railroad in Canada

1867: "Dominion of Canada", (established under the British North American Act); comprising Québec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick

1869: North-west Territories (i.e. the Hudson Bay Co. territory) is acquired from the Hudson Bay Co. by the confederation of Canada

1870: Manitoba becomes a new Province (by 1867 the settlement of Fort Garry, later called Winnipeg, had grown rapidly to a settlement of 12,000 people)

1871: British Columbia is united with Vancouver Island and together they join the confederation; the Dominion of Canada now stretches from coast to coast

1873: Prince Edward Islands  joins the confederation (new province)

1884: New Brunswick becomes a separate province

1885: Canadian Pacific Railway is completed

1898: Yukon Territory (formerly: Yukon district) is established following the Klondyke goldrush; the precise frontier with Alaska is agreed on in 1903

1905: Saskatchewan & Alberta join the confederation (provinces)

1931: Canada becomes an independent member of the British Commonwealth (and remains a constitutional monarchy)

1949: Newfoundland becomes 10th Province of the Canadia Federation

Central & South America

1804: Haïti

1811: Paraguay

1816: Argentinië

1818: Chili

1821: Mexico independent (see external link)

1822: Brazilië

1824: Peru

1825: Bolivia

1830: Colombia, Equador, Venezuela

1833: Falklanden van Groot-Brittannië (tot 1811 van Spanje, daarna opgeëist door Argentinië)

1838: Honduras, Guatamala, Nicaragua

1844: Dominicaanse Republiek afgescheiden van Haïti

1843-1903: Chilean & Argentinian conquest of Patagonia (1843: Chileense expeditie naar Straat van Magelhaes, vestiging van Fuerte Bulnes)

1881: boundary treaty Argentina / Chili

1902: grens tussen Chili en Argentinië officieel vastgesteld door bemiddeling van Groot Brittannië (enkele stukken bleven omstreden)

1914: voltooiing van het Panamakanaal

Europe (for 1755-1823, see external link)

4e eeuw na Chr. : begin der volksverhuizingen

ca. 850: Corsica veroverd door de Saracenen (tot 1077)

ca. 870: onststaan van graafschappen, heerlijkheden, gouwen, etc.

         onder Lodewijk de Vrome, zoon van Karel de Grote

898: Lotharingen aan Frankrijk geschonken; wordt speelbal tussen Duitsche Keizerrijk en Franse monarchie

900: het hertogdom Lotharingen valt weer aan Duitsland toe

966: Polen gesticht tussen de rivieren Oder en Wisla, als koninkrijk bestaande uit verschillende Slavische stammen

1077: Corsica door Pisa veroverd op de Saracenen (tot 1300)

1233: stichting van Mariënwender (in Pruisen)

1237: stichting van Elbing (in Pruisen)

1240 (ca.): Polen uiteengevallen in 10 kliene vorstendommen, a.g.v. uiteenvalling van Polen in de 12e eeuw, maar nadien wel verder uitgebried in oostelijke richting (Galicië)

1280: ontstaan van Pruisisch grondgebied, vanuit Mariënburg ag.v. veroveringen door Teutoonse Orde

1286: stichting van Königsberg (in Pruisen)

1298: Zwitserland onafhankelijk van Oostenrijk

1300: Corsica door Genua veroverd op Pisa (tot 1768)

1320 (ca.): Polen opnieuw verenigd door toedoen van de machtige deelvorst Wladislaw I Lokietek, m.u.v. Pommeren en Silezië

1386: Pools-Litouwse Gemenebest (ontstaan als reactie op Duitse dreiging), incl. het huidige Wit-Rusland en grote delen van huidige Oekraïne; werd in 1569 een federale staat

1452: Oost-Romeinse Rijk door Turken overweldigd

1466: Polen uitgebreid met West- Pruisen, incl. Dantzig/Gdansk (ongeveer het gebied van de latere Poolse corridor naar de Oostzee)

1471: Engelse burgeroorlog (War of the Roses) : Koning XII van Frankrijk steunde Huis van Lancaster tegen Koning Edward IV (gesteund door Karel de Stoute van

          Bourgondië, en graaf van Holland)

1474: Nancy (in het Duitse Lotharingen) veroverd door Karel de Stoute (= Karel van Bourgondië, graaf van Holland, etc)

1479: Sicilië komt onder Spaans bewind

1484: toen Maximilliaan zijn vader, Frederik III, opvolgde als Duits Keizer, deed hij het hertogdom Bourgondië incl. het graafschap Holland over aan zijn zoon Filips de Schoone

1496: vereniging van Oostenrijkse Huis (Habsburg) met het Huis van Aragon door huwelijk van Filips de Schoone met de dochter van Spaanse Koning (Johanna van Aragon)

1516: Karel V, zoon van Filips de Schoone (van Oostenrijk) en Johanna van Aragon (dochter van Spaanse koning), volgt Spaanse Koning op na diens dood

1519: Karel V werd ook Keizer van Duitse Rijk na de dood van zijn vader Maximilliaan (van Oostenrijk/Habsburg); kroning in 1520

1525: Pruisen wordt hertogdom (het Pruisische grongebied was sinds 1280 steeds verder uitgebreid)

1535: Tunis, een gevreesde roofstaat aan Noord-Afrikaanse (Barbarijse) kust veroverd door Karel V; ook Lombardije (Noord Italië) wordt door hem veroverd

1559: een groot deel van Italië (Milan, Napels, Sicilië, Sardinië en de staat van Presidi) komt onder direct Spaans gezag (Filips II) in het Verdrag van Vateau-Cambresis

           na 60-jarige Frans-Spaanse oorlog om de macht over Italië ; de rest van Italië komt indirect onder Spaans gezag (door Spaanse controle over o.a. Toscane en Genua;

           alleen de Republiek Venetië en het hertogdom van Savoie bleven onafhankelijk; het Spaans gezag over Italië bleef tot 1713 (na Spaanse Successieoorlog) bestaan.

           Ook Franche-Comté komt onder Spaans gezag.

1569: Pools Litouwse Gemenbest (1386) omgevormd tot federale staat; tot 1772

1580-1581: Portugal in Spaanse handen (tot 1640); Filips II van Spanje werd in 1581 gekroond als Filips I van Portugal

1595: Ontstaan van groothertogdom Finland

1628: Lotharingen door Frankrijk veroverd

1640: Portugal weer zelfstandig (was sinds 1580 onderdeel van Spanje)

1641: Malakka veroverd op Portugezen

1642: Abel Tasman ontdekt Nieuw Holland (Australië)

1645: Brazilië gaat verloren als Nederlandse kolonie

1645: Jämtland door Noorwegen afgestaan aan Zweden

1646: Frankrijk verovert Duinkerken op Spanjaarden

1648: onafhankelijkheid van Zwitserse Gemenebest; onafhankelijkheid van de Nederlandse Republiek

1648: stichting van Willemstad op Curaçao

1648: Vrede van Westfalen: einde 30-Jarige Oorlog, 1618 - 1648, in groot deel van Europa, van Keizer Ferdinand II van Roomse Rijk (gesteund door Spanje)

            tegen Bohemen, Oostenrijk en, vanaf 1621, de Protestantse Duitse staatjes (gesteund door Engeland, de Zeven Provinciën, Denemarken, Zweden,

            en vanaf 1634 ook door Frankrijk. De Roomse Keizer Ferdinand erkende de vrijheid van Protestantse Duitse staatjes.

           Aartsbisdom Bremen & het bisdom Verden worden Zweeds grondgbied (tot 1721)

1648: Vrede van Münster, einde van de oorlog die in Nederland bekend staat als de "Tachtigjarige Oorlog" en in o.a. Engeland als "Dertigjarige Oorlog"

1652: stichting van kolonie Kaap de Goede Hoop door Jan van Riebeek, stichting van Paramaribo door Parham ("Fort Zeelandia" door Krijnsen in 1667 bemachtigd)

1657: Pruisen onafhankelijk van Duitse Keizerrijk

1658: Bohuslän wordt Zweeds grondgebied, evenals de Deense provincies Halland, Blekinge & Skäne (a.g.v. Verdrag van Roskilde)

1659: Vrede van de Pyreneeën tussen Spanje en Franrijk, waarbij de Roussillion (voorheen deel van Aragon, en Spanje) in Franse handen komt;

           ook delen van de Spaanse Nederlanden (o.a. Duinkerken/Dunkerque, Rijssel/Lille) vallen aan Frankrijk toe

1660: Trondheim wordt door Zweden aan Noorwegen afgestaan (Verdrag van Kopenhagen, als gevolg waarvan de Zweedse expansie werd ingeperkt)

1660: Makassar veroverd op Portugal; Duinkerken door Engeland aan Frankrijk verkocht

1662: Coromandel, Malabar, Cochin veroverd door Nederlanders

1663: idem Cananoor

1664: Nieuw Amsterdam gaat over in Engelse handen (New York)

1665: Pools-Litouwse federale staat verzwakt a.g.v. opstand onder Oekraïense kozakken; Rusland verovert land rondom Smolensk, oostelijk deel van Oekraïne, en de stad Kiev;

           in 18e eeuw, na de tegen Zweden ontketende Grote Noordse Oorlog, werd het Pools-Litouwse rijk een vazalstaat van Rusland; verdere ontmateling in 1772, 1793, en 1795

1667: Paramaribo zo genaamd na verovering van Fort Zeelandia door Krijsen

1669: Kreta veroverd door Venetië op Ottomaanse Rijk

1673: Nieuw Nederland (in Noord-Amerika) na kortstondige herovering teruggeven aan Engeland

1685: Prinsdom Oranje door Lodewijk XIV verbeurd verklaard en verenigd met de Province

1704: Russische hoofdstad verplaatst van Moskou naar St. Petersburg

1709-1710: Russische expansie onder Peter de Grote, inlijving van Estland, Ingermansland, Lijfland, Finland, Wiborg, Kornholm, Koerland, Lithouwen

1713 -1714: Einde van Spaanse Successieoorlog (1701-1714)

           de oorlog mondde uit in het Verdrag van Utrecht in 1713, en het Verdrag van Rastatt in 1714,

           die het einde inluidden van de Spaanse hegemonie op Europese Continent, noordelijk Italië en de zuidelijke Nederlanden gingen van

           Spaanse in Oostenrijkse handen over, de koloniale macht van Groot-Brittannië nam verder toe ten koste van Frankrijk,

           o.a. in het Canadese deel van Noord-Amerika, waar de oorlog bekend stond als Queen Anne's War, ofwel de Eerste Franse en Indiaanse Oorlog

           [de 2e was de 7-Jarige Oorlog]; wikipedia link)

           Zuidelijke Nederlanden, hertogdom Milaan, koninkrijken Napels, en Sardinië door Spanje afgestaan aan Oostenrijk (na Spaanse Successieoorlog, Vrede van Rastatt)

           Gibraltar en Minorca kwamen in Engelse handen; Sicilië viel aan het koninkrijk van Savoije toe; Oostenrijk kreeg de Zuidelijke Nederlanden

1716-1718: Servië en Hongarije door Oostenrijk op het Ottomaanse Rijk veroverd; deze veroveringen werden in 1737 teniet gedaan

1717: Sardinië door Oostenrijk afgestaan aan de hertog van Savoie, en Sicilië kwam in Oostenrijkse handen (Vrede van Den Haag)

1725: Verdrag van Wenen tussen Spanje en Oostenrijk; Sardinië, Savoije + Sicilië worden Oostenrijks bezit

1737: Lotharingen viel aan Frankrijk toe (in ruil voor Franse erkenning van Oostenrijkse troonsopvolging door Maria Theresa, die met de hertog van Lotharingen huwde)

           Het hertogdom van Toscane (met Florence) valt toe aan Oostenrijkse Huis, en werd door Spanje afgestaan na de dood van het laatste lid van de Medici-familie

1738: Bosnië, Servië, en Oltenië (Klein Wallachië) weer door het Ottomaanse Rijk op Oostenrijk veroverd (sinds ca. 1718 in oostenrijkse handen)          

1738: Koninkrijk van Napels door Oostenrijk aan Spanje afgestaan (na de Poolse Successieoorlog van 1733-1738)

1742: Silezië (in Bohemen) door Maria Theresa aan Pruisen afgestaan (Oostenrijkse Successieoorlog begon na dood Keizer Karel VI met Pruisische inval in Silezië in 1740)

           Het hertogdom van Parma valt toe aan Spanje

1745: Oost-Friesland met Pruisen verenigd

1748: Vrede van Aaken, einde Oostenrijkse Successieoorlog (1740-1748), in Noord-Amerika bekend als King George's War                  

           De Oorlog werd gevochten door Oostenrijk (gesteund door Groot-Brittannië en de Nederlandse Republiek) aan de ene kant,

           en Pruisen en Frankrijk aan de andere kant.

           Ook Noord-Italië was betrokken doordat het weer onder Spaans gezag kwam.

1762/63: Einde van de Zevenjarige Oorlog; in Noord-Amerika bekend als de (Tweede) Franse en Indiaanse Oorlog

             in eerste instantie een koloniale en handelsoorlog tussen enerzijds Groot-Brittannië, met Pruisen als bondgenoot,

             en Frankrijk en Spanje anderszijds, met Oostenrijk als bondgenoot.

             Het Verdrag van Parijs in 1763 regelde de nieuwe koloniale realiteit waarbij o.a. Florida door Spanje aan de Britten werd overgedragen,

             en Louisiana van Franse in Spaanse handen overging.

             Het Verdrag van Hubertusburg van 1763 regelde de nieuwe Europese werkelijkheid waarbij Pruisen verder aan macht won ten koste van Oostenrijk.

1763: Frankrijk verliest koloniën in Oost- en West-Indië a.g.v. Vrede van Fontainebeau

1768: Corsica door Frankrijk veroverd op Genua

1768: wereldreizen van James Cook

1772: eerste Poolse deling door Rusland, Oostenrijk en Pruisen

1784: Nederland verliest koloniën, waatronder Bengalen, Malabar, en Coromandel aan Engeland na de 4de Engelse Oorlog (1780-1784)

1787: Duitse bezittingen aan de Rijn in Franse handen; strijd tussen Nederlandse patriotten en prinsgezinden ontaardt in burgeroorlog

1793: tweede Poolse deling waarbij, nade eerste deling in 1772, opnieuw grote delen van het land aan Rusland, Pruisen en Oostenrijk werden afgestaan

1794: Belgié ingelijfd bij Frankrijk

1795: derde Poolse deling; totale opsplitsing van Pools-Litouwse staat tussen Rulsand, Pruisen en Oostenrijk, a.g.v. opstand; tot 1919 bestond er geen Poolse staat

1815: Congress of Vienna:

           German Confederation of 38 states, with only part the western part of Prussia (een los verbond van Centraal Europese staten, als opvolger van het Heilige Roomse Rijk)

           (including the states of Pommeria & Brandenburg, and also with Westphalia and a large part of the Rhineland added to Prussia)

           only part of Austria was added/retained (only the German parts & Bohemia)

           Austria (+ Hungary) lost the southern part of the Netherlands (Belgium) to Holland, it also lost part of Poland to Russia:

           De verdeling van Polen van 1795 werd hiermee als volgt gewijzigd: hertogdom Warschau viel aan Rusland toe, Poznan aan Pruisen, Oostenrijk behield Galicië

           Austria got Lombardy + Venice (tot respectievelijk 1859 en 1866)

1830: Greece becomes independent from Ottoman Empire

1831: België onafhankelijk

1859: Lombardije-Venetië (voorheen deel van het Oostenrijks-Hongaarse Rijk) geannexeerd door Koninkrijk van Sardinië & Piedmonte (Cantour),

           en wordt deel van Italiaanse confederatie, na Tweede Italiaanse Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog

1860: Toscane geannexeerd, als onderdeel van de Italiaanse "confederatie"

1861: Italian unification (without Venice & Papal States)

1864: Ionian islands under Greek rule; Pruisische oorlog tegen Denemarken > Sleeswijk valt toe aan de Duitse confederatie

1866: Venetië (voorheen deel van het Oostenrijks-Hongaarse Rijk) geannexeerd door Italiaanse confederatie (onder Cantour)

1866/1867: Northern Germany: confederation under Bismarck of states north of the River Main, excluding Austria, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden

1870: westelijk gedeelte van de pauselijke staten onderdeel de Italiaanse eenheidsstaat (het oostelijk deel was al in 1860 geannexeerd)

1871: German Empire under Bismarck after Franco- German war of 1870-71 + Alsace, Lotharingen + Southern German States (Bavaria, etc) +

           Prussian expansion along the entire Baltic coast up to Konigsberg (incl. northern Poland)

1878: Congress of Berlin: independence from Ottoman Empire of Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania, and Bulgaria

                                               Bosnia-Herzegovina is added to Austria (for Ottoman Empire, see external link)

1908: Bosnia Herzegovina annexed by Austria

1917: Finland

1917-1920: Ukraine

1918-1921: Georgia

1918-1920: Azerbaijan

1918-1920: Armenia

1918: Polish corridor to Baltic Sea (from Germany/Prussia)

1919: Treaty of Versailles, end of Austro-Hungarian empire:

            independence of Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Bosnia Herzegovina, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes,

            part of Macedonia + Romania acquires extra territory in the west (Transylvania);

            also Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania independent from Russia

1919: Saarland under League of Nations, Rhineland under armed occupation

1922: Irish Free State

1932-1938: Catalonia autonomous

1935: Saarland incorporated by Germany

1936: Rhineland remilitarized

1936-1937: Basque Republic autonomous

1938: Sudetenland (northern part of Czecholslovakia) annexed by Germany

1939: Bohemia (in Czechoslovakia) + Memel (in Lithuania) annexed by Germany

1990: German unification

1991: former Soviet republics independent (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan,

            Russian federation, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan)

 

Middle East

1917: Palestine (today's Israel and Jordan) under British occupation, after Ottoman rule

1918: Yemen independent

1918-1920: Syria (including today's Lebanon) occupied by Britain, after Ottoman rule

1920: Syria (including today's Lebanon) under French mandate

1920: Palestine (today's Israel and Jordan) under British mandate

1926: Saudi Arabia much as it is in today (expanding e.g. in 1913 by annexation of El Hasa)

1943: Lebanon (formerly together with Syria under British

1946: Jordan (formerly called Transjordan, since 1923 under British rule as part of Palestine)

1946: Syria

1948: Israel

1961: Kuwait

1967: People's Republic of Yemen (formerly Aden, since 1886 annexed by Britain)

1967: Sinai + Golan to Israel

1971: United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Quatar

1982: Sinai to Egypt

Africa (see external link)

1651: Jan van Riebeek founds a settlement on Cape of Good Hope (a fort at Table Bay)

1680: Stellenbosch was founded (by Commander Simon van der Stel (his wife's maiden name was Bosch)

1689 (approx.): Bay of Natal is purchased from the natives

1684: the farm of Constantia founded near Wijnberg

1685: after the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in this year, French Hugenots settled mainly in Draeknsein and French Hoek

1795: British rule over the Cape Colony during the Napoleonic wars

1802: Cape Colony restored to the Dutch (decided at the Peace of Amiens)

1803: cape of Good Hope again part of the Batavian Republic (Holland)

1806: Cape Colony under British rule

1811: the frontier fort of Grahamstown was founded after the first Kaffir War.

1814: Cape of Good Hope under British rule

1815: Cape of Good Hope is formally ratified as a British possession after £6 million was paid to the Netherlands (including Demarara, Essequibo & Barbica)

1819: extension of the Cape Colony to the river Keiskamma (after the 2nd Kaffir War)

1834: the Great Trek accross Orange River istarts and will lead to settlement of the Orange Free State

1835: the boundaries of the Cape Colony are retropgaded from the Kei River to Fish River (after the 3rd Kaffir War)

1836-1838: Great Trek of Boers to present-day Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Natal

1839: town of Potschefstroom founded (capital of Transvaal until 1863)

1840: Dutch Republic of Natalia founded on the shores of the Bay of Natal (not recognized by the British)

1843: Natal is proclaimed a British colony

1846: Bloemfontein founded

1848: British holds sovereignty over the area north of Orange River until 1854 (when the Orange Free State became an independent Boer State again)

1852: Transvaal independent

1854: Orange Free State independent again as a free Boer state

1855: discovery of Victoria Falls (by Dr. Livingstone); around this date members of the disbanded German legion after the Crimean War settled in Kaffir territory

1857: first railway in the Cape Colony is planned to the town of Wellington

1859: discovery of Lake Nyasa (today's Malawi) by Dr. Livingstone

1860: Transvaal (= South African Republic) is formed from the three republics Potschefstroom, Lydenburg, Utrecht.

1862: Speke & Grant passed through Uganda

1863: Pretoria becomes capital of Transvaal (previous capital was Potschefstroom)

1865: British Kaffraria is incorporated into the Cape Colony

1868: Basutoland becomes British territory

1875: Stanley passed through Uganda

1877: Transvaal annexed by the British (after discovery of diamonds on the Vaal River in 1867, and ensuing war & strife with the natives and the Boers)

1880: 1st Boer War, restoration of South African Republic

1881: South African Republic, independent of Transvaal again

1883: German protectorate north of Orange River (Walfish Bay remained British)

1884: Protectorate of German South-West Africa; Basutoland disannexed from the cape Colony (1883?)

1885: British Protectorate of Bechuanaland; annexation by the British Cape Colony ofthe territory between the Colony and Natal

1886: Rand Gold Fields opened

1887: British annexation of Zululand

1889: Eritrea under Italian rule

1890: British rule over Uganda

1891: boundaries of Nyasaland Protectorate were demarcated (present-day Malawi)

1893: Caprivi Strip ceded to Germany by Great Britain, and added to South-West Africa as an outlet to the Zambezi

1898: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (condominium); Kruger Park ("Sabi Game Reserve") founded in Transvaal (opened to the public in 1928)

1899-1902: 2nd Boer War

1902: Uganda Railway, part of Uganda became part of British East Africa

1910: Union of South Africa

1918: Ruanda & Urundi separated from Tanganyika Territory

1920: South-west Africa came under South african administration (formerly German)

1922: Brits mandaat over Tanganyika (het latere Tanzania)

1923: Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) decides on separate status from the Union of South Africa

1938: Italian control over Ethiopia

1941: Ethiopia (formerly Abessinia)

1951: Libya (since 1911 under Italian rule: Tripolitania, fezzan, Cyrenaica)

1953: Federation of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia & Nyasaland

1954: Egypt (British presence since 1882, and British protectorate from 1914 to 1954)

1956: Morocco independent from Spain

1956: Tunesia independent from France (since 1881 under French rule)

1960: Mauritania independent

1960: Somalia independent

1961: Republic of South Africa (outside the Commonwealth); Tanganyika onafhankelijk

1962: Algeria independent from France

1963: Kenya independent from Britain (12 dec.)

1964: Nyasaland independent (Malawi), Northern Rhodesia independent (Zambia), Tanzania independent from Britain

1965: (Southern) Rhodesia unilaterally declared independent from Britain (since 1980: Zimbabwe); Tanganyika heet nu de United Republic of Tanzania

1966: Malawi becomes a Republic within the Commonwealth

1967: Botswana becomes an independent Republic within the Commonwealth (formerly: Bechuanaland)

1975: Angola independent from Portugal

1975: Mozambique independent from Portugal

Asia

1571: Filipijnen veroverd door Spaanse Koning Filips II

1619: stichting van Batavia op Java door Nederlanders

1637: Goa en Ceylon in Nederlandse handen

1641: Malakka veroverd op Portugezen

1662: Coromandel, Malabar, Cochin veroverd door Nederlanders

1757: India onder Brits bewind

1783: Mysore veroverd door Engeland

1784: Negapatnam & hele kust van Coromandel worden Engels bezit na 4 Engelse Oorlog (1780-1784)1802: Ceylon wordt door Nederland afgestaan aan Engeland (tijdens Vrede van Amiens)

1826: Assam & Arakan (eastern India) added to British rule in India

1842: Hong Kong: British rule

1843: Sind (in western part of India) under British rule

1847-1856: annexation of autonomous dependencies in India

1849: Punjab under British rule

1853: northern part of Sakalin islands to Russia

1860: Vladivostok to Russia (including Maritime Province)

1871-1881: Sinkiang to Russia

1875: southern part of Sakalin islands to Russia

1875: Kurille islands to Russia

1886: Burma under British rule

1898: Philippines occupied by the USA

1945: Republic of Indonesia declared

1946: Philippines independent

1947: India & Pakistan independent

1948: Burma & Ceylon (later called Sri Lanka) independent

1949: Taiwan gets nationalist government

1963: Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia

1971: Bangladesh (East Pakistan) secedes from Pakistan

1975: Papua New Guinea

1975: Sikkim annexed by India

1984: Brunei independent

Australia:

1642-3: Abel Tasman discovers Van Diemen's Land

1770: Captain James Cook claims New Holland for Britain; Botany Bay gesticht

1788: Port Jackson is selected as the site for the settlement of Sidney

1825: Van Diemen's Land separated from New South Wales

1826: penal colony founded in Albany (Western Australia)

1829: Australia under British rule: New South Wales (including today's Victoria and Queensland)

1829: establishment of the settlement of Fremantle  (Perth)

1831: establishment of the colony of Western Australia (which gets its own government in 1890)

1835: first settlement at the site of today's Melbourne

1836: establishment of the colony of South  Australia (which gets its own governemnt in 1856)

1840: transportation of convicts to New South Wales ends

1840: annexation of New Zealand by the British

1851: Victoria becomes a separate state (the colony gets its own government in 1855)

1855/1856: New South Wales and South Australia get their own governments

1856: name of Van Diemen's land is changed to Tasmania

1859: Queensland becomes a separate state

1868: transportation of convicts to Western Australia ends

1872: overland telegraph from Adelaide to Darwin completed

1901: the Commonwealth of Australia is established

1927: new capital, Canberra